European fashion history

The project’s goal is to have a total of 700,000 fashion-related elements in digital form and online by March 2015, helping to preserve European fashion history for future generations. Wikipedia summarizes the style of the first half of the 18th century: “Fashion in the period 1700–1750 in European and European-influenced countries is characterized by a widening silhouette for both men and women following the tall, narrow look of the 1680s and 90s.Wigs remained essential for men of substance, and were often white; natural hair was powdered to achieve the fashionable look. The Fashion History Timeline is a project by FIT’s History of Art Department.The Timeline offers scholarly contributions to the public knowledge of the history of fashion and design. Consistent with this mission, the Timeline’s written commentary, research, and analysis provided by FIT students, faculty, and other members of the community is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution ... History of Costume European Fashion Through the Ages. Feeds: Posts Comments. Jewelry of the Middle Ages. November 29, 2011 by abigailwestover94. Jewelry was similar to clothing when it came to portraying rank and wealth. Even European newspapers would publish the latest fashions from France. Little did anyone know that France would remain the fashion icon for hundreds of years to come. These fashions did not only influence Western Europe. This age was the zenith of European colonialism, especially in the Americas. Fashion & History 30.04.2020. Object Voices / The Technology behind Embroidery: Evening Dress, 1909-10. EFHA World 23.04.2020. SMUK. Fashion Decoration: a Show-Off at ModeMuseum Hasselt. EFHA World 29.03.2020 “Anticipation” of the Little Black Dress. Fashion & History 15.03.2020. Bohus Stickning: National Pride, International Style 1930s 1940s 1950s Italian fashion Three ‘simple seamstresses’ that dressed international jet-set. It was the 1936 when Fontana sisters – Zoe, Micol and Giovanna – decided to move from the little town of Traversetolo, near Parma in the North of Italy, to the city, looking for opportunities to work in fashion.

Iris [1/3]

2020.09.23 02:48 normancrane Iris [1/3]

Part 1 <-- You are here.
Part 2
Part 3 [Soon!]

Iris

The first person to ever tell me the theory was Iris. It was nighttime in 2015, and we were lying on an old mattress on the roof of a four-storey apartment building in a university town in southern Ontario. A party was going on downstairs to which we’d both been invited and from whose monotony we’d helped each other escape through an ordinary white door that said “No entrance”. It was summer. I remember the heat waves and the radiating warmth of the asphalt. Our semester was over and we had started existing until the next one started in the way all students exist when they don’t spend their months off at home or touring Europe. I could feel the bass thumping from below. I could see the infinite stars in the cloudless sky. The sound seemed so disconnected from the image. Iris and I weren’t dating, we were just friends, but she leaned toward me on the mattress that night until I could feel her breathing on my neck, and, with my eyes pointed spaceward, she began: “What if…”
Back then it was pure speculation, a wild fantasy inspired by the THC from the joint we were passing back and forth and uninhibited by the beer we’d already drunk. There was nothing scientific or even philosophical about Iris’ telling of it. The theory was a flight of imagination influenced by her name and personalized by the genetic defect of her eyes, which her doctors had said would render her blind by fifty. Even thirty-five seemed far away. It’s heartbreaking now to know that Iris never did live to experience her blindness—her own genetic fate interrupted by the genetic fate of the world—but that night, imagination, the quality Einstein called more important than knowledge, lit up both our brains in synapses of neon as we shared our joint, sucking it into glowing nothingness, Iris paranoid that she’d wake up one morning in eternal darkness despite the doctors’ assurances that her blindness would occur gradually, and me fearing that I would never find love, never share my life with anyone, but soothed at least by Iris’ words and her impossible ideas because Einstein was right, and imagination is magical enough to cure anything.

2025, Pre-

I graduated with a degree in one field, found a low paying job in another, got married, worked my way to slightly better pay, wanted to have a child, bought a Beagle named Pillow as a temporary substitute, lived in an apartment overlooking a green garbage bin that was always full of beer cans and pizza boxes, and held my wife, crying, when we found out that we couldn’t have children. Somewhere along the way my parents died and Kurt Schwaller, a physicist from the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, proved a grand theory of everything that rather than being based on the vibrations of strings, was based on a property of particles called viscous time force. I never understood the details. To me they lacked imagination. The overriding point, the experts on television told us, was that given enough data and computing power we could now predict the outcome of anything. The effect was that no one wanted to study theoretical physics and everyone wanted to make breakthroughs in data collection systems and biological hardware. Hackers created a version of Linux that ran from DNA. Western Digital released the first working holographic storage drive. The NSA, FSB, BND and other agencies rushed to put their suddenly valuable mass of unprocessed raw spy data to prognostic use. A Chinese bookmaker known only by the nick ##!! wrote a piece of Python code that could predict the outcomes of hockey games. Within a month, the NHL and KHL were scrambling to come up with ways of saving their leagues by making them more unpredictable. They introduced elements of chance: power plays without penalties, a tilting ice surface, fluctuating rules that sometimes allowed for icings and offsides and sometimes not, and, finally, a pre-game lottery by which the names of the players on both teams were put into a pot and randomly drawn into two squads. Given enough variables, the strategy did thwart the code, but the inherent unfairness of the innovations alienated the players, the draft made owners question why they were paying the salaries of superstars who played against them half of the time, and the fans simply stopped paying attention to a league full of teams for which their already dwindling loyalty had bottomed out. Besides, the code was basic. ##!! had room to expand. The KHL folded first, followed by the NHL, and then the other sports leagues, preemptively. They didn’t bother to wait until their own codes were broken. I remember seeing an interview with ##!! while this was still front page news. The reporter, a perpetually smiling big-breasted blonde with blindingly white teeth, asked him if he thought that hockey could be rescued by the creation of roving blue lines that would continually alter the relative sizes of both offensive zones and the neutral zone. ##!! answered that he didn’t know what a blue line was because he’d never watched a hockey game in his life. His voice was cold, objective, and there was something terrifyingly inhuman about the idea that a person with no knowledge of a subject could nevertheless understand it so completely. Content had become a mere input of form.
By 2025, mainstream interest in the theory of everything faded, not because the theory was wrong but because it was too right and too abstract and now there weren’t any young theoretical physicists to help explain it using cute graphics on YouTube. We consumed what we understood and passively accepted the fallout while going on with our daily lives. The people who did understand made money, but for the rest of us the consequences were less than their potential, because even with enough time, memory and microprocessors the most we could know was the what and the when, not the why. For the governments and corporations pouring taxes and tax-free earnings into complex models of world domination, that didn’t matter. They weren’t interested in cause. They were in the business of exploiting certainty to gain power. As long as they could predict lightning, they were satisfied. If they could make it, all the better. Away from the cutting edge, however, like ants or ancients, what we craved to know was where the lightning came from, what it meant, and on that issue the theory was silent. As Kurt Schwaller put it in a speech to the United Nations, “All I’ve given you is a tool—a microscope to magnify the minutes, so to speak—with which to investigate in perfect detail the entirety of our interrelations. But the investigations still have to made, ladies and gentlemen. Have a hay stack, look for the needle. Know there might not be one.”
In January, my wife and I began a fertility treatment for which we’d been saving for years. It was undoubtedly the reason we became so emotionally involved in the media attention around Aiko, the lovely, black-haired and fashionable Crown Princess of Japan, who along with her husband was going through the same ordeal that we were. For a few months, it seemed as if the whole world sat on the edges of its seat, wishing for this beautiful royal couple to conceive. And we sat on two, our own and one somewhere in an exotic Japan updated by the royal Twitter feed. It strikes me now that royalty has always fascinated the proles, a feeling that historically went in tandem with hatred, respect or awe, but it was the Japanese who held our attentions the longest and the most genuinely in the twenty-first century, when equality had more or less rendered a hereditary ruling class obsolete. The British declared themselves post-Christian in 2014 and post-Royal in 2021, the European Court of Justice ruled all other European royals invalid in 2022, and the Muslim monarchs pompously degraded themselves one-by-one into their own exiles and executions. Only the Japanese line survived, adapting to the times by refusing to take itself seriously on anything but the most superficial level. They dressed nicely, acted politely and observed a social protocol that we admired without wanting to follow it ourselves. Before he died, my father had often marvelled that the Second World War began with Japan being led by an emperor god, and ended with the American occupation forcing him to renounce his divinity. The Japanese god had died because MacArthur willed it and Hirohito spoke it. Godhood was like plaque. If your mother told you to brush your teeth, off it went, provided you used the right flavour of Colgate. Kings had once ruled by divine right. By 2025, the Crown Princess of Japan ruled our hearts merely by popular approval. She was our special friend, with whom we were all on intimate and imaginary terms. Indeed, on the day she died—on the day they all died—Princess Aiko’s was the most friended account on Facebook.
That’s why March 27, 2025, was such a joyous occasion for us. In hindsight, it’s utterly sick to associate the date with happiness of any kind, but history must always be understood in context, and the context of the announcement was a wirelessly connected world whose collective hopes came suddenly true to the jingle of a breaking news story on the BBC. I was in the kitchen sauteing onions when I heard it. Cutting them had made me cry and my eyes were still red. Then the announcer’s voice broke as he was setting up his intro, and in a video clip that was subsequently rebroadcast, downloaded and parodied close to a billion times in the one hundred thirty-two days that followed, he said: “The Crown Princess of Japan is pregnant!”
I ran to the living room and hugged my wife, who’d fallen to her knees in front of the wall-mounted monitor. Pillow was doing laps on and off the sofa. The BBC cut away from the announcer’s joyful face to a live feed from Japan. As I held my wife, her body felt warm and full of life. The top of her jeans cut into her waist. Her tears wetted the top of my shirt sleeve. Both of our phones started to buzz—emails and Twitter notifications streaming in. On the monitor, Aiko and her husband, both of their angular faces larger than life in 110” 1080p, waved to the crowd in Tokyo and the billions watching around the world. They spoke in Japanese and a woman on the BBC translated, but we hardly needed to know her exact words to understand the emotions. If them, why not also us? I knew my wife was having the same thought. We, too, could have a family. Then I smelled burning oil and the pungency of onions and I remembered my sauteing. I gently removed my arms from around my wife’s shoulders and ran back to the kitchen, still listening to Aiko’s voice and its polite English echo, and my hands must have been shaking, or else my whole body was shaking, because after I had turned down the heat I reached for the handle of the frying pan, knocked the pan off the stove top instead, and burned myself while stupidly trying to catch it before it fell, clattering, to the floor. The burned onions splattered. I’d cracked one of the kitchen tiles. My hand turned pale and I felt a numbness before my skin started to overflow with the warmth of pain. Without turning off the broadcast, my wife shooed me downstairs to the garage where we kept our car and drove me to the hospital.
The Toronto streets were raucous. Horns honked. J-pop blared. In the commotion we nearly hit a pedestrian, a middle-aged white woman pushing a baby carriage, who’d cut across Lake Shore without looking both ways. She had appeared suddenly from behind a parked transport—and my wife instinctively jerked the car from the left lane to the right, scraping our side mirror against the truck but saving two lives. The woman barely noticed. She disappeared into a crowd of Asian kids on the other side of street who were dancing to electronica and waving half a dozen Japanese flags, one of which was the Rising Sun Flag, the military flag of Imperial Japan. Clutching my wrist in the hope it would dull the pain in my hand, I wondered how many of them knew about the suffering Japanese soldiers had inflicted on countless Chinese in the name of that flag. To the right, Lake Ontario shone and sparkled in the late afternoon light. A passenger jet took off from Toronto Island Airport and climbed into the sky.
In the hospital waiting room, I sat next to a woman who was reading a movie magazine with Nuri Bilge Ceylan’s face on the cover. The Cannes film festival was coming up. My wife checked me in at the reception desk. The woman beside me put down her magazine and told me that she was there with her son, as if needing to justify her presence. I affirmed by nodding. He’d hurt his leg playing soccer for a local Armenian junior boys team, she went on. I said I’d hurt myself frying onions and that I was here with my wife. She said my wife was pretty and asked if I liked movies. Without meaning to do it, I tried to guess her age—unsuccessfully—and proceeded to imagine having doggy style sex with her. She had dark eyes that barely blinked and plump thighs. When I started to feel guilty, I answered her question: sometimes I watched movies at home, but I hadn’t been to a theatre in a decade. When my wife sat down, I let the two of them talk about the woman’s son. I was having trouble concentrating. I took my phone out of my pocket and read all the new emails about the royal conception, then stared at the seconds hand going slowly around its digital clock face on my home screen, wondering why we so often emulated the limitations of analogue machines on devices that were no longer bound by them. I switched my clock type to a digital readout. Now the seconds no longer rotated but flickered away. They called my name over the crackling intercom and a nurse led me to one of the empty rooms. “How about that baby,” he said while we walked. I didn’t see his face, only the shaved back of his head. “The things they can do these days, even for infertile couples.”
I waited for over thirty minutes for a doctor. When one came in, she inspected my hand for less than ten seconds before telling me that I was fine and hinting that I shouldn’t have wasted her time by coming to the emergency room. She had high cheek bones, thin lips and bony wrists. Her tablet had a faux clipboard wallpaper. Maybe I had only misinterpreted her tone. “How about that baby,” I said.
“It’s not a baby yet,” she answered.
This time her tone was impossible to misinterpret. I was only repeating what the nurse had said, I told myself. But I didn’t say that to her. Instead, I imagined her coming home at night to an empty apartment, furnished possibly in a minimalistic Japanese or Swedish style, brewing a cup of black coffee and settling into an armchair to re-read a Simone de Beauvoir novel. I was about to imagine having sex with her when I caught hold of myself and wondered what was up with me today.
When I got back to the waiting room, my wife was no longer there—but the Armenian woman was. She pointed down the hall and told me a room number. She said that sometime after I left, my wife had gotten a cramp and started to vomit all over the floor. Someone was still mopping up. The other people in the waiting room, which was filling up, gave me tactfully dirty looks, either because I was with the vomiter or because I’d shirked my responsible by being away during the vomiting. Irrationally, I wiped my own mouth and fled down the hall.
Inside the numbered room, my wife was sitting hunched over on an observation bed, slowly kicking her feet back and forth. “Are you OK?” I asked.
“Come here,” she said.
I did, and sat beside her on the bed. I repeated my question. She still smelled a little of vomit, but she looked up at me like the world’s luckiest puppy, her eyes big and glassy, and said, “Norman, I’m pregnant.”
That’s all she could say—
That’s all either of us could say for a while.
We just sat there on the examination bed like a pair of best friends on a swing set after dark, dangling our feet and taking turns pulling each other closer. “Are you sure?” I finally asked. My voice was hoarse. I sounded like a frog.
“Yes.” She kicked the heel of my shoe with the rubber toe of hers. “We’re going to have a baby.”
It was beautiful. The most wonderful moment of my life. I remembered the day we met and our little marriage ceremony. I thought about being a father, and felt positively terrified, and about being a better husband, and felt absolutely determined, and as I kissed my wife there in the little hospital room with its sterile green walls, I imagined making love to her. I kept imagining it as we drove back to the apartment through partying Toronto streets. “Not since the Maple Leafs won the Stanley Cup!” the radio announcer proclaimed—before I turned him off. I also turned off my phone and my wife’s phone. No more buzzing. In the underground parking lot, I leaned over and licked her soft neck. I pushed her through the open apartment door and straight into the living room, onto the sofa, and wished I could be the cushions beneath her thighs and the air invading her lungs. Pillow barked a greeting and wagged her tail. The monitor on the wall showed talking heads and fertility experts. I unbuttoned my wife’s blouse. She unbuckled my belt. The picture on the monitor dissolved to a close-up of Aiko’s smiling face. My wife and I took turns sliding off each other’s jeans. I kissed her bare stomach. She ran her hands through my hair. I dimmed the lights. We made love.
When we were done it was starry nighttime. My wife bandaged my hand. We turned off the television. The silence was refreshing because people on television too often talk like they’re trying to push you off a ledge. My wife excused me from the duty of making supper because of my ineptness with the frying pan, and handed me a leash instead. I hooked it up to Pillow’s collar and took her outside. While she peed, I gazed up at the sky and identified the Big Dipper. It and the Little Dipper were the only constellations I could identify without using a smartphone app. After Pillow finished, we ducked into a nook and I peed, too. The March sky was amazingly clear of smog. My urine splashed on the concrete and I felt embarrassingly primal. I breathed in, shook out the last drops and zipped up.
In the apartment, we ate grilled portabella mushrooms topped with parmesan and parsley and drank brown rice tea. My wife had changed into fresh clothes. I had changed into fresh skin. Every time she said “mom” and “dad”, the words discharged trickles of electricity up and down my peripheral nervous system. We were happy; we were going to have a baby. The whole world was happy; the Crown Princess of Japan of was going to have a baby. The sounds of drunken urban celebrations drifted in through our bedroom window all night like fog, and we barely slept.

2025, Post-

Gold is precious because it’s rare. Now close your eyes and imagine that the next time you open them, everything in your world will be golden: your kitchen table, the bananas you bought on the way home from work yesterday, your bottle of shampoo, even your teeth. Now blink. You’re not alone. The market’s flooded. Gold isn’t rare anymore. It’s everywhere. Which means that it’s worth about as much as its weight in mud, because there’s nothing intrinsically good about gold. Can you write on your gold table? It scratches. Surely you can’t eat your golden fruit. Your shampoo’s not a liquid anymore, so your hair’s already starting to get greasy. And if you do find something to eat that’s not made of metal, how long will those gold teeth last before you grind them into finely polished nubs?
For two days the Earth glittered.
For two days we lived in a daze of perfection.
And then, on March 29, a researcher working with lab mice at Stanford University noticed something odd. All of his female mice were pregnant. He contacted several of his colleagues who were also working with mice, rats, and monkeys. All their female animals were pregnant, too. Some of the colleagues had wives and girlfriends. They took innocent-seeming trips to their local pharmacies and bought up all the available pregnancy tests. At home, women took test after test and all of them showed positive. By midnight, the researchers had drafted a joint letter and sent copies of it to the major newspapers in their countries. On the morning of March 30, the news hit.
When I checked my Twitter feed after breakfast, #impregtoo was already trending. Throughout the day, Reddit lit up with increasingly bizarre accounts of pregnancies that physically couldn’t be but, apparently, were. Post-menopausal women, celibate women, prepubescent girls, women who’d had their uteruses removed only to discover that their reproductive systems had spontaneously regenerated like the severed tales of lizards. Existing early stage pregnancies aborted themselves and re-fertilized, like a system rebooting. Later term pregnancies developed Matryoshka-like pregnancies nested within pregnancies. After a while, I stopped reading, choosing to spend time with my wife instead. As night fell, we reclined on the sofa, her head on my chest, Pillow curled up in our tangle of feet, the television off, and the streets of Toronto eerily quiet save for the intermittent blaring of far off sirens, as any lingering doubts about the reality of the situation melted away like the brief, late season snow that floated gently down from the sky, blackening the streets.
On March 30, the World Health Organization issued a communique confirming that based on the available data it was reasonable to assume that all female mammals were pregnant. No cause was identified. It urged any woman who was not pregnant to step forward immediately. Otherwise, the communique offered no guidance. It indicated merely that the organization was already working with governments around the world to prepare for a massive influx of human population in approximately nine months’ time. Most places, including Toronto, reacted with stunned panic. Non-essential workplaces and schools were decried closed. People were urged to stay indoors. Hospitals prepared for possible complications. A few supermarkets ran out of canned food and there were several bank runs, but nothing happened that the existing systems couldn’t handle. Populations kept their nerve. Highway and air traffic increased slightly as people rushed to be with their friends, families and gynaecologists. We spent the entire day in our apartment and let Pillow pee in the tub. Except for the conspiracy theorists, who believed that the Earth was being cosmically pollinated by aliens, most of us weren’t scared to go outside, but we were scared of the unknown, and we preferred to process that fear in the comfort of our own dens.
The New York Times ran a front page editorial arguing for an evaluation of the situation using Kurt Schwaller’s theory of everything. In conjunction with The Washington Post, The Guardian and The Wikipedia Foundation, a website was set up asking users for technical help, monetary donations and the sharing of any surplus computing power.
The project quickly ran into problems. To accurately predict anything, the theory of everything needed sufficient data, and, on April 2, cryptome.org published a series of leaked emails between the French Minister of Health and a high-ranking member of World Health Organization that proved the latter’s communique had been disingenuous at best. Externally, the World Health Organization had concluded that all female mammals were pregnant. That remained true. However, it had failed to admit an even more baffling development: the wombs of all female mammals had inexplicably become impenetrable to all rays and materials that had so far been tried against them. For all intents and purposes, there was no way to see inside the womb, or to destroy it. The only way to revert the body to its natural form, to terminate the pregnancy, was to kill the woman—an experiment that, according to the high-ranking member of the World Health Organization, the French government had helped conduct on unwilling women in Mali. Both parties issued repeated denials until a video surfaced showing the murders. I couldn’t bring myself to watch it. They spun their denials into arguments about the necessity of sacrificing lives for the greater good.
Reminded once again of the deception inherent in politics, many turned to religion, but the mainstream religions were hesitant to react. They offered few opinions and no answers. The fringe religions split into two camps. Some leaders welcomed this development, the greatest of all known miracles, while others denounced the same as a universal and unnatural punishment for our collective sins of hedonism, egoism and pride. The most successful of all was the Tribe of Akna, a vaguely mystical Maya revival cult that sprang up seemingly overnight and was led by a Guatemalan freelance programmer named Salvador Abaroa. Although it originated in Mexico City, the Tribe spread as quickly across the world as the computer viruses that Abaroa was notorious for creating. On the Tribe’s homepage, Abaroa could be seen striking an antique brass gong and saying in Spanish-tinged English, “Like energy, life is never destroyed. Every one of us plays an integral part of the cosmic ecosystem. Every man, woman and virus.” Elsewhere on the website, you could buy self-published theological textbooks, listen to scratchy recordings of speeches by Alan Watts and read about the hypothesis that Maya thought was deeply connected to Buddhism because the Mayans had crossed the Pacific Ocean and colonized Asia.
But despite the apparent international cooperation happening at the highest levels, the first week of April was an atomizing period for the so-called people on the ground. We hunkered down. Most personal communication was digital. My wife and I exchanged emails with her parents and sister, but we met no one face-to-face, not even on Skype. We neither invited our neighbours to dinner nor were invited by them, despite how easy it was to walk down the hall and knock. I read far more than I wrote, and even when I did write, responding to a blog post or news story, I found it easier to relate to strangers than to the people I knew. My wife said I had a high tolerance for solitude. “Who do you know in the city?” she asked. Although we’d been living here together for three years, she still considered Toronto mine. She was the stranger, I was the native. I said that I knew a few people from work. She told me to call one of them I’d never called before. I did, and the next day’s sky was cloudless and sunny and there were five of us in the apartment: my wife and I, my friend Bakshi and his wife Jacinda, and their daughter, Greta. Greta drank apple juice while the rest of us drank wine, and all five of us gorged ourselves on freshly baked peach cobbler, laughing at silly faces and cracking immature jokes. It hardly registered for me that the majority of the room was unstoppably pregnant, but wasn’t that the point: to forget—if only for a few hours? Instead of watching the BBC, we streamed BDRips of Hayao Miyazaki movies from The Pirate Bay. Porco Rosso ruled the skies, castles flew, a Catbus arrived at its magical stop. Then Bakshi’s phone rang, and he excused himself from the table to take the call. When he returned, his face was grey. “What’s the matter?” Jacinda asked him. He was still holding the phone to his ear. “It’s Kurt Schwaller,” he said. “They just found his body. They think he killed himself.”
Proceed to Part 2
submitted by normancrane to cryosleep [link] [comments]


2020.09.20 14:31 Zweckpessimist A Summary and Analysis of Imperium by Francis Parker Yockey (Part 2 of 3): The Cringey Half of Imperium

Culture Pathology: Here Yockey expands more on what he thinks makes a Culture “sick,” which includes what he calls “cultural parasitism,” “cultural distortion,” and “cultural retardation.” Cultural parasitism is when groups of people from outside the Culture and incompatible with the Culture reside within a particular Culture. Three guesses for his (((prime example,))) and of course he lists East Asians and African Americans in that category as well. It’s worth noting here that cultural parasitism doesn’t just mean actively trying to undermine the High Culture the “parasites” are in. The very act of them existing in an “incompatible” culture will cause trouble, expressed in the form of things like race riots, for the same reason a virus or parasite simply existing in a body before it has the chance to do anything will cause an immune reaction. The only way to stop the immune reaction is to get rid of the “parasites.” “Cultural distortion,” as Yockey defines it, is a more specific version of this involving the “extra-Cultural” groups actively undermining a Culture out of opposition to a rival Culture’s “Idea,” or revenge for persecution as in the case of Jewish people, usually via political, financial, or media control. One group he describes as parasites but not distorters are the Chinese Americans, because they hadn’t, in 1948, gained much political power to influence America. However, Yockey does state he is convinced that if Chinese Americans had political power in America, they would have had America intervene militarily in favor of China in conflicts like the Opium Wars. Yockey also includes what he calls “the Michel element,” based on the German national caricature of the naïve Everyman easily exploited by foreigners, as part of cultural distorters and Western allies of the “(((cultural-parasites)))" taking an active part in culture-distortion. “Cultural Retardation,” is what Yockey considers the end goal of “cultural-distortion,” namely to prevent or slow a High Culture from fulfilling its “Destiny,” which for Yockey’s plans for Western Culture means something like the world of TNO, only without the OFN or Co-Prosperity Sphere. He considers the culture of America, Britain, and to a lesser extent continental Europe, to be stuck in the Age of Materialism of the 19th Century and not moving on to the Age of Absolute Politics (i.e. fascism) that’s the Destiny of Western Culture for the 20th Century. Because Yockey insists (in 1948) that liberal democracy is going to fall ANY DAY NOW. And if it doesn’t Western Culture is D O O M E D. Then, of course, he goes into generic fash babble about Jews controlling Western Culture by using cultural distortion to cause cultural retardation, ranting in exhaustive detail of all the things he believes cultural distorters are responsible for.
America: Now we get a more detailed look of Yockey’s picture of America and then-current US politics. And it is one of profound contempt for almost everything about America. Unlike other American fascists who usually try to give lip service to the Founding Fathers and the ideals they had, even if they destroy them in reality, Yockey castigates the vast majority of the Founders and even directly attacks the ideas in the Preamble of the Declaration of Independence. He continues to decry every part of American government that most of its people cherish like rule of law, constitutionalism, elections, the separation of powers, an independent judiciary, and more.
Yockey detests almost every single major figure and political group in American history with the big exception being some of the Federalists particularly Alexander Hamilton (for wanting to make America a monarchy,) George Washington (for speaking against political parties,) and Ben Franklin (for supposedly wanting to ban Jews from America, based on the almost certainly fake “Franklin Prophecy.”) Yockey also stans the Confederate States of America. Suffice to say he cracks out all the Lost Causer classics in his depiction of the Confederacy, including using a phrase that made me literally LOL: “humanitarian slave-owner.” He particularly seems to hate FDR, and calls his election “The American Revolution of 1933,” portraying it as the final, complete takeover of the “culture-distorters.”
Yockey says that because America was a mere colony of Europe as opposed to Europe’s heartland it was more susceptible to “culture distorters” and ideologies like materialism, rationalism, and democracy. And since there were no rival States to deal with after the War of 1812, America could adhere to these ideologies without collapsing from invasion by a Western nation with a stronger will-to-power. He’s particularly salty about America siding with the Allies in both world wars and claims the only reason America went to war against the Central Powers/Axis was because of the manipulations of the “culture-distorters” who wanted to weaken and divide Western Culture. The only real wars America had any business fighting at the time, according to Yockey, were against Japan and Latin America, because only those wars would have increased the power of America and Western Culture, whereas the World Wars weakened it. And, in spite of it being a “good” war, Yockey doesn’t like how America conducted the Pacific War, arguing America was such big meany-heads to the “Europeans” (i.e. Nazis) and were too nice to the Japanese and should have annexed them. Yockey claims World War II was supposedly conducted this way only because the “culture-distorters” controlling America made it so.
Yockey believes that if and when America throws off the “culture-distorters,” “cultural parasites” and democracy to adopt authoritarian and Western government, it is only right for America to “reunify” with Europe to create a Western Imperium to dominate the world and defend and promote Western High-Culture. Yockey also says that using “constitutional” methods to accomplish this is “probably impossible” and that outright civil war will be necessary to overthrow the “culture distorters.” (Hipster Yockey: “I was down for the Boogaloo before it was cool.” /exceedingly dark snark.)
World Situation: This is the part where Yockey gets closest to predicting what he thinks might happen, or should happen, in global politics in the latter half of the twentieth century. He starts off talking about how the two most important developments since the end of the First World War were the rise of Ethical Socialism (i.e. National Socialism) and the rising independence movements in Western colonies in Africa and Asia. Obviously he believes that German “Ethical” Socialism should have won to unite the West against the revolt by “extra-Western” forces, which he believes will not only be about liberating themselves from Western rule, but also actively seeking to destroy the West. He then goes to talk a bit more about Russia and Japan, the two nations he sees as the greatest threat to the West.
He goes on to reassert that Russia is not a Western nation, and indeed is actively hostile to the West despite the Romanovs having been a pro-Western ruling class, because their reign was inevitably overthrown by their anti-Western general populace. Interestingly enough, Yockey also considers the Bolsheviks a Western-influenced ruling class and that the Russian people only backed Bolshevism as the best tool for destroying the West, and if there ever arose a more effective ideology for the task of destroying the West, the Russian populace would support that ideology instead. He gives his assessment of the current balance of power and finds Russia favored for having a stronger on their holdings in Europe due to their contiguous proximity compared to America and use of military force to hold it instead of “puppet governments.” The one major weak point against Russia that Yockey sees is turning the Asiatic general populace against the Westernized Bolshevik ruling class, but stresses that as long as Russia is an organized political nation it will be a threat to the West.
Yockey’s assessment of Japan is a bit shorter, simply asserting that it will rise again and become a strong anti-Western power. What’s interesting here is the weird, ugly mix of dread at the rising power of Japan, but also respect for a society that better reflects his ideals than his native country even if it is a decidedly anti-Western society, and also a quiet lust to see Japan completely destroy America, which the book then shifts focus back to.
Yockey further elaborates on what he sees as the weaknesses of America, including remoteness from the center of geographic power, Europe (basically he adheres to the Heartland Theory); a lack of Imperialistic thinking in American leadership, using “financial-diplomacy” as opposed to direct military occupation to maintain control of its European “puppet-states,” and divide between the American populace and the “culture-distorters” who are the ruling class. He also claims that while the “true” American is Western and the “true” Russia is Asiatic, in the near-term it is better to support Russia in the Cold War at the expense of America. This is because America spreading “Culture-retardation” to Europe will destroy European will-to-power, which is more likely to permanently destroy it than Russian military occupation and oppression, which will only strengthen European unity and will to rise against Russia. And since European will and intelligence is stronger than Russian, once it is aroused, Europeans are certain to be victorious.
Mr. Banana-Head also spends the next chapter on salty whining about the Nuremburg Trials, comparing it to the French Reign of Terror, and engages in some good ol’ fashioned Holocaust denial (“Geoffrey Lawrence, do it again!”). Then the chapter after that is basically ranting that unless Europe unites as a single nation it will be spoils for Russia and America, and that the only way Europe can be united is by force, either “civil” or “international” wars. And after unification the first task of Europe is Lebensraum 2.0: Invade European Russia to gain the agricultural land needed to feed Europe’s populace.
As a final assessment, I’d say it’s an annoying read because I was at first disappointed but then wondered what else I was expecting. Because for all his high concept-sounding phrases, that turned out to be euphemism, pedantry, and babble; he really just gave a wordier version of the same megalomaniacal rant that every fascist in history has, or will ever, give: Defend our nation! Advance superior culture! Purge the degenerates! Begin the New World Order! We shall become all- “-Powerful! Crush the lesser races! Conquer the galaxy! Unimaginable Power! UNLIMITED RICE PUDDING! Etcetera! Etcetera!” – The Seventh Doctor, “Remembrance of the Daleks.” And yet, kind of like in Pathologic with the>! “It was all just a game” ! Anyway, next time, the more interesting part: How I think Yockey’s ideas will be implemented in the game.
submitted by Zweckpessimist to TNOmod [link] [comments]


2020.09.19 22:07 Leopath Bloodlines: Carolingian Hegemony (Part 7)

Bloodlines: Carolingian Hegemony (Part 7)

2.2 Colonial Policy and the Maria Brothers

As the French, English, and Andalusians settled into the Americas, many questions would come up over time. How do they deal with the native peoples already living there? How do they ensure these colonies settled hundreds of miles and an entire ocean away don’t slowly drift from their motherland? And how do these countries continue to supply and expand these colonies with supplies they need? Each country would address these issues in different ways. England decided to organize their Canadian colonies into a single united territory administered by a royally appointed Governor. The Governor was an appointed position that could be revoked at any given moment and was a title to be renewed regularly. King Gregory III appointed Nicholas Eric as the first Governor of Newfoundland on the 3rd of November, 1517. Newfoundland was to encompass all of English Canada. The Governor was to survey and administer the colonies as they saw fit with the power of the English monarch.

Newfoundland c. 1517

First Colonial Flag of Newfoundland
That very same year, upon pressure by the English crown and English cardinals, Pope Guichard I ratified the Treaty of Tordesillas. The treaty was considered by many to be a breach of Papal authority as it showed preference towards particular powers by the church. The treaty essentially granted to King Gregory III and all of his descendants a divine right and claim to rule all of Canada as his domain. Naturally, the Yazidi Aftasids naturally disregarded the treaty but it was incredibly controversial among the French who felt that the Pope has shown favoritism. Emperor Louis I decreed that “in matters of assessing and communicating with Heaven and God I trust his Holiness. In matters of the secular, the state, of people, and carving up creation I leave it to Caesar.” Emperor Louis I passed away two years later on the 19th of March, 1518 due to pneumonia that followed a common cold. Louis I did not leave any legitimate children from his marriage and instead stated in his will to pass the throne to his 32 year old bastard Alexandre. Due to the circumstances of his birth many, especially among the nobility doubted Alexandre I’s legitimacy to rule. Namely his cousin Nikolaos Godefroi, son of the Count of Maine. Nikolaos gathered an army of around 36 thousand men in Maine along with his half-brother Mukhtar leading to a brief civil war between Nikolaos and Emperor Alexandre I.

https://preview.redd.it/ikh41zcwo5o51.png?width=621&format=png&auto=webp&s=38239d8522df2a11e413972fbcd8a29cfd247309
The brief French Civil War only lasted a few months. The Imperial Marshal Barthelemi Pierre implemented and deployed new pedero cannons onto the battlefield during this time. These cannons were light and used stone cannonballs instead of iron ones making them much more effective than the old large bronze cannons as they were more lightweight and mobile making them generally more flexible to different circumstances. Nikolaos moved the bulk of his army north from Maine leaving behind his half-brother in charge of about 9 thousand men. Realizing the pretenders were divided and weak, French soldiers led by General Asim Etienne arrived on the 21st of May, 1518 with 7 thousand of these pedero cannons which were used to rain down fire onto the rebels before utilizing the French Pike and Shots to shred the enemy knights. In the end the rebels were slaughtered with little damage done to the French loyalist forces. Mukhtar himself was captured by General Etienne and sent to Paris where he was hung.

https://preview.redd.it/f5o4adhfq5o51.png?width=611&format=png&auto=webp&s=0be04306dbd747d0f845d93b2ae8e3d4906b2051
After the successful Battle of Maine, the French army moved north to Alencon arriving on the 5th of June, 1518. General Etienne met with Nikolaos himself crossing the river where over 4 thousand men perished though once crossed reinforcements from Maine arrived which sent Nikolaos into a desperate retreat. While some men were left behind to liberate Alencon while the rest gave chase eventually ambushing them in Blois where the rest of Nikolaos’ army was killed and he would be sent to Paris where he was imprisoned and never seen nor heard from again. A few years later after a rocky succession, Alexandre I had his first son and successor Louis on the 7th of April, 1523.

https://preview.redd.it/tuuz9n2mq5o51.png?width=600&format=png&auto=webp&s=e63e3c9c7f2ad1e0de34e672c31336988b01f62d
Back in the Americas the French had to make their own breakthroughs. Chief Minister and Chancellor Thierry Anastasios helped oversee the design of the first ‘Flute’ ships. These were designed to carry large amounts of cargo with a small crew to cheaply and efficiently carry supplies across the oceans. These flutes helped facilitate the shipping of manufactured goods to Cuba and returning back with raw goods such as sugar and cotton. This influx of new goods being shipped in along with the development of the flute helped usher in a sudden rise in the merchant class within France. Additional state funds were allocated by Anastasios to help accelerate colonization efforts in Cuba in order to keep up with the English after their declaration of the Governorship of Newfoundland. This included setting up the first French settlements off the island of Cuba itself on the island of Jamaica after colonists first landed on the 3rd of April, 1522. Anastasios further streamlined the colonization process by utilizing surveys and experiments to help decide what supplies and items were most necessary to efficiently prepare colonists when travelling to settle in the New World. This streamlined process only helped expand the colony further.
Then on the 18th of July, 1524 Pope Robert I was elected into the Papacy being the first French pope in almost 80 years and the last one to hold the position since. Later on the 1st of August of that same year Pope Robert I amended the Treaty of Tordesillas which granted the divine right to colonize the Caribbean to France. Unlike his father Alexandre I unsurprisingly espoused praise to the Pope and the Treaty. Alexandre I on the same day had decided to replicate the actions of the English by appointing Julia Maria as the first Governor of Cuba. Maria and his government set themselves up in La Havane and it was decreed that Jamaica would at first remain under French administration though once it became self-sufficient it too would be put under Cuban administration. Cuba wasn’t the only place where new developments were underway though. The famous French explorer, Ebbon Thomais, had charted and explored most of the inner lands of continental North America around the Mississippi River. The lands which had been named Louisiana after Emperor Louis I were to be settled by the newly organized ‘Louisiana Company’. The company was funded by the state namely under Thierry Anastasios specifically to break the monopoly on the continent held by the English. The first settlement was founded along the coast where a red stick was found in the ground that marked the border between two local tribes. This inspired the name of the first settlement of Louisiana, Baton Rouge.

The Governorship of Cuba c.1524

Colonial Flag of Cuba
Ironically, only 5 days after Emperor Alexandre I issued the charter to the Louisiana company to colonize the land he’d named, Ebbon Thomais died on the 7th of August, 1524. His expeditions were not only instrumental to colonize Louisiana but he was the first Frenchman to contact numerous native tribes and his misadventures filled numerous journals with fascinating tales of mutinies, battles with local native peoples, and multiple encounters where he was nearly executed by a native tribe before some kind of ‘princess’ had leapt onto his head to protect him. Many of the myths and stories told about early colonial America were actually based on Thomais’ journals. Then in January of 1527, Thierry Anastasios passed away. Always having been one of the most critical and influential men in the French court he in many ways fathered the French Colonial system.
Thierry was replaced by a young upstart naval officer and reformer by the name of Leon Maria. Leon alongside his brother Governor Julien Maria would have a huge influence over the French court. The Maria brothers both viewed the natives of the New World as simple savages incapable of being Christianized or being integrated into colonies peacefully. This was in sharp contrast to colonial policy up to this point which was largely focused on trading and negotiating with local natives often converting them and integrating them into the colony's population. Then Baton Rouge faced a terrible crisis. Local natives had been more aggressive in Louisiana than in Cuba. The Sioux and their federation rebuffed attempts to establish diplomatic ties with the French. Locals in Baton Rouge saw the colony as encroaching on their land. This led to an attack by the natives on the 25th of October, 1527 which was enough for the Maria brothers to see their chance. Using his position in the court, Leon Maria spoke on behalf of his brother to urge the crown to give a proper response in Louisiana. Emperor Alexandre I decided to send over 20 thousand men to the colony and the following year the tensions escalated again. More French settlers built a colony along the mouth of the Mississippi naming it New Orleans. New Orleans quickly grew as one of the most important ports in North America as it served as the perfect hub to trade for furs with Native Americans. Then on the 5th of June a native tribe that were mistaken by the French as having been a part of the Sioux Federation attacked New Orleans only to be killed by the 2 thousand French soldiers. Seeing this as an act of provocation (even though neither the Sioux nor their allies had anything to do with the attack), Leon Maria used it as justification to subjugate the natives under the French crown. Emperor Alexandre I approved and formally declared war on the Sioux on the 24th of August, 1528.

The War of the Sioux c.1528
The War of the Sioux was led by French General and commander Zelibrat Hildebert. Utilizing pike and shot formations mixed with cannon artillery he entered Sioux territory in the east which triggered the other members of the federation to join the war in their defense. Namely the Choctaw, Lipan, Caddo, Shawnee, and Cherokee. A few months later the Illiniwek and Chickasaw both joined the war. French soldiers hunted and burned villages, capturing and enslaving Sioux natives if they didn’t accept being forcibly converted to Christianity. By the 24th of October, 1528 all of the Sioux territory was under French control. As the Choctaw lost control of their villages with French raids they fled north gathering with their allies to plan a counter attack against the French. This involved guerilla tactics and ambushes. The French army quickly promoted a soldier named Frederic Edvard who stood out for his unique talent and leadership traversing the strange and foreign wilderness. Edvard was put in charge of some troops and sent to travel northeast to fight the more distant Cherokee in the early months of 1529. By December they were defeated, their homes sacked, and Edvard continued on the offensive to crush other distant tribes that had joined the war to protect the federation such as the Illiniwek and the Shawnee. Edvard eventually faced off in two of the three Battles of Chickasaw. 8 thousand natives gathered an attack against the 11 thousand French soldiers resulting in the Chickasaw Slaughter as the arquebus and cannons were enough to shred apart the natives' forces easily before they even got to lay a hand on a single French soldier.

https://preview.redd.it/lgj47acwr5o51.png?width=588&format=png&auto=webp&s=c485d9817a03c38a91178f5ff106fc674fc0acbe
The Second Battle of Chickasaw did not go nearly as well as over 25 thousand combined natives overwhelmed the 11 thousand French soldiers on the 25th of February, 1530. Despite their numerical disadvantage the French ended up killing over twice as many natives in the battle before retreating as ammunition ran low. This skillful retreat saved most of the French forces, however surrendering a victory to the Sioux Federation showed the French were not invulnerable despite superior technology and could be defeated.

https://preview.redd.it/avczoh33s5o51.png?width=592&format=png&auto=webp&s=e86232795a270637cef6a9834ac75b42bd078d56
Later on March 19th, 1530, the third and final Battle of Chickasaw broke out when Zelibrat Hildebert arrived crushing the remaining natives. The French certainly suffered quite a few losses but this time were able to use their weaponry to crush and push back the Sioux forcing them to retreat despite having lost not even 4 thousand men.

https://preview.redd.it/fexpmcu2t5o51.png?width=587&format=png&auto=webp&s=575f9b5abca9b3a551e9b2c211e4fb37b42919e7
Despite the French attacks, slaughtering natives and for example burning down entire Caddo villages around the same time the war also had a surprising human side to it. Native tribes within Natchitoches were suffering from terrible foreign diseases brought over by the French. So the French settlers moving into the region encroaching on them and responsible for the disease to begin with offered food, services, and supplies to these natives which inspired other tribes who were more against the Sioux anyways began to flood into the colony to try and receive medicine and help as they too were suffering from these diseases.
The Illiniwek had their village attacked and their territory under French control in the summer of 1530 forcing their chief to surrender, being the second member of the Federation to sign a peace treaty and helping signify the end of the war. By September the Shawnee left, and several days after tribe after tribe were forced to sign treaties with the settlers. By October the Lipan, Caddo, and Chickasaw all subject themselves to the French Emperor, agreeing to allow missionaries to come and try to convert them. The natives would be allowed to remain in their lands though all of it was to be administered and overseen by a new colonial government in New Orleans. Finally on the 22nd of November, 1530, the Sioux and Choctaw were the last to sign the ‘Peace of Biloxi’ as they too swore under the French Emperor and in just a few years Louisiana went from a small handful of ports to a large North American colony made up of a mixture of Native Americans and European settlers alike. Despite the surrender of native chiefs numerous warriors remained in the wilds attempting to take back their lands. Even after peace was signed, conflicts would continue in the recently established colony long after peace was signed.

https://preview.redd.it/wewsh42ht5o51.png?width=620&format=png&auto=webp&s=72aa954bde3961ce6cf2da1587a9c7fc8f959453
In the year following the War with the Sioux, France saw an economic boom with expanded colonial markets unlike anything seen before. On the coast wharfs were being erected to store and import in goods from the new world. The stocking frame was invented as new textile manufactories were springing up across the Empire and new techniques made cloth more valuable and popular among the fashions of France rather than wool. Meanwhile the war against the natives helped fuel new innovations including improvements to the arquebus by giving it a larger musket with a matchlock which allowed a heavier round more able to pierce armor. And despite being very choosy on which clauses to respect in the Treaty of Tordesillas, the French continued to take advantage of having a French pope in power and had a second amendment made recognizing the region of ‘Louisiana’ as most of the interior of North America and granting the divine right to rule over the region to the French. Despite now having a Pope in power and shaping the treaty to however they want, Leon Maria pressured Emperor Alexandre I into adopting an even more aggressive colonial policy. Outright defying the treaty and sending French colonists into the northern coast of the Bay of St. Lawrence in Tadoussac. They landed on the 1st of May, 1533 and the region they settled they called Quebec. Beaver fur had been growing in price after the extinction of the European beaver and the discovery of the fur trade in the Americas. Canada was rich in beaver fur and was the perfect place to harvest it. It was hoped this new Canadian colony would break English monopoly in the fur trade. Finally on the 1st of June, 1533 Emperor Alexandre I issued a royal decree to create a new Colonial administration, the Governorship of Louisiana. Centered in New Orleans, the Emperor named Gelduin Sybille as the first Governor of Louisiana. He’d been a diplomat and navy officer who served directly under Leon Maria during the war (in fact some sources say he was the first to suggest a war with the Sioux to Maria).

The Governorship of Louisiana c.1533

Colonial Flag of Louisiana
The direct competition between England and France in colonizing the New World was intense in driving colonial policy. For example in order to compete with the more established English colony of Newfoundland, Emperor Alexandre I on the 5th of May, 1534 decreed the General Colonization Act which allowed foreigners to freely move in and settle into French colonies as a way to promote growth The English had passed a similar act not long before. Competition didn’t stop in Canada however. English colonists began settling along the Rio Grande just west of Louisiana and north of the many Mesoamerican Kingdoms and empires. Not to be outdone, the French made their own plans to colonize and settle into the region. Governor Julien Maria had his eyes set on the Mayan Kingdom of Chactemal. In his governance of the Caribbean, Julien had established contacts with native Mesoamerican Indians studying the political situations in the region. Chactemal ruled over the entirety of the Yucatan Peninsula and were the most centralized and powerful kingdom in the region. They were also said to be incredibly wealthy and filled with gold and silver treasures. This made them of course a target and gave them enemies among the other powers in the region. Also unlike the largely nomadic natives in Louisiana, the Mayans had settlements with infrastructure, institutions, and so forth. It was the perfect staging ground. So Governor Julien convinced his brother Leon to pressure Emperor Alexandre I to give him power over the French Imperial army and navy to invade. On the 4th of March, 1534 Leon was given the go ahead and war was declared on Chactemal. Thus Leon had accumulated more power as Chancellor than anyone to ever hold the position up to then or since.

The First Franco-Mayan War
In the summer of 1534 French forces landed in the Chactemal capital in modern day Belize and on the 17th of July they took control of the city, crippling one of the most powerful kingdoms in Mesoamerica. Then by early August most of the Gulf of Honduras and southeastern Yucatan were under French control with the armies of Chactemal and Mixtec combined trying to retake control of the capital. For the most part the losses for the French were not in any major battles but instead usually from hit and run guerilla tactics in the jungle.
Eventually Mixtecs army of 12 thousand was intercepted by the French before being promptly defeated in the ‘Slaughter of Kobox’ on August 29th, 1535. Due to the dense jungle artillery fire was not as effective and as a result most of the battle was fought in much closer quarters leading to over a thousand French deaths. However not a single native man would survive without being captured and enslaved. It was an unprecedented amount of death from any sort of military engagement up to that point and spoke about many of the more modern advancements made by the French military.

https://preview.redd.it/mx8ok9vku5o51.png?width=614&format=png&auto=webp&s=68a71dcb170dd410a5697a7ec253bf548baa95eb
By early 1536 the rest of the Yucatan Peninsula was under French occupation and control and Chactemal was brought to its knees. The bulk of the Mayan army still resisted and evaded the French consistently retreating into the jungle yet unwilling to give up. Eventually they clashed in February where it was discovered the Mayans had possession of cannons and horses that had been stolen, lost, or left behind by the French during the war. Some of them were even sold to the Mayans by the English. However their ammunition was limited and they lacked the training to tactfully use this technology as well. Leaving a third of their forces dead before they retreated. Finally the war came to an end on the 27th of March, 1536 when General Zelibrat Hildebert who had led the war in Louisiana, negotiated with King Cocom II Chactemal in the Treaty of Belize. The natives were not to be completely conquered and subjugated like in Louisiana but instead their eastern coast was to be ceded to the French who would occupy the region and begin moving settlers to organize their new colonial government. The French also kept soldiers present to quell any anticipated rebellions as well as catholic missionaries to help convert natives to Christianity.

https://preview.redd.it/ee51ooewu5o51.png?width=622&format=png&auto=webp&s=b1b4639994f72b40a16bf009bec2d48c7e86069a
As the First Franco-Mayan War came to an end, the Maria brothers enjoyed what had become the peak of influence and power. Leon as Chancellor had overseen multiple conquests to subjugate and conquer what he saw as untamed savages and now enjoyed direct command over the military and navy. Julien continued to serve as Governor of Cuba now enjoying a prestigious position of wealth as La Havane was the gate to these new colonial holdings for France. However, nothing lasts forever. On the 1st of February, 1537 at 51 years old Leon Maria passed away in his office. Easily one of the most powerful Chancellors in French history he was pivotal in shaping French colonial policy in his tenure and made the French colonial empire incredibly competitive with the English jumpstarting French colonial ambitions. However, by that same token their wars led directly to the deaths of tens of thousands of native peoples and probably more due to the spread of diseases among native populations afterward. His brother Julien shortly afterwards retired from the office of governor and would pass away 5 years later enjoying a life of luxury, wealth, and influence. The Maria family remained prominent in the French colonies often serving in various military offices and even as Governors. Julien's own son Guillaume would even become Governor of Cuba in 1549.

Leon Maria (1486-1537)
After the Maria brothers both left the scene, the French colonial empire they built grew and settled. French settlers set sail hoping to land in South America to compete with the Aftasids and ensure that the natives were not lost to the devil worshipping Yazidis. Chartered By Emperor Alexandre they hoped to land on the eastern tip of Brazil. However rough weather and miscalculations threw them off course and instead they landed in a region they would al the Plate River or Rio de Plata on the 21st of May, 1539. Rafiq Mikhael himself as well as other explorers had charted the region but the French settlers were the first to actually build and move into La Plata. Meanwhile back in Mexico, French settlers had moved into the conquered territories and in September of 1539 Emperor Alexandre I formally appointed an influential trader and merchant, Theodotos Orson, as the first governor of French Mexico. Although separated by dozens of native Mesoamerican kingdoms, both the English and French laid claim to the whole of Mexico.

Governorship of French Mexico c.1539

Colonial Flag of French Mexico
submitted by Leopath to eu4 [link] [comments]


2020.09.19 11:18 Camisado27 Huzzzahhh !!!! I think I’m a little hypomanic (Bipolar 2) right now I’d love to talk to someone don’t really care who 17F

I can talk about almost anything European history, Fashion, art, dogs, horses, skiing, politics (left, but I’m open to debate with anyone) movies honestly anything that isn’t mechanical stuff like cars. Or you can also vent to me tho I’m not great with expressing empathy
submitted by Camisado27 to Needafriend [link] [comments]


2020.09.18 13:00 DarthEquus The History of Medicalized Circumcision Part 5: 1980-2019

The History of Medicalized Circumcision Part 5: 1980-2019
A new wave of genital cutting was begun with Wiswell in the '80s based on neonatal UTI incidence. He reached his conclusions by comparing children born in a hospital with universal infant circumcision who were born prematurely and whose poor health had prevented routine circumcision at birth. Notably he also commanded parents to treat the child's foreskin destructively only to use the resultant damage as evidence circumcision was necessary. The bigger question about this unfortunately successful infant genital surgery promotion is how was it ever accepted as valid science? To (1998) found the rate of UTI in Canadian infants was reduced 3.5 times but that was really from only 0.7% to 0.2%. So while it sounds like a lot as a relative rate, it would take almost 200 surgeries to prevent a single UTI.
The much more powerful and significant wave of circumcision activism beginning in the 1980s was the terribly successful lie that male genital cutting could significantly help prevent HIV infection. This idea did not reach significant development until after 2000 when John Hopkins circumcision activists designed and performed the large and expensive African RCTs to "prove" male circumcision prevented HIV infection in men based on studies comparing groups with differing levels of STI awareness counseling, the most likely real cause of the recorded effect. That flaw would be fatal, but there were many other problems with those studies besides that. See Boyle & Hill 2011, Van Howe and Storms (2011), and Green (2008) for critiques of those studies.

1980: ~80% of the newborn American male population is circumcised and 67% of adult men

https://preview.redd.it/m52eo19mlim51.jpg?width=840&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=739f5049e289c17c427740de92e278457d754c54
1980 Edward Wallerstein published Circumcision: An American Health Fallacy detailing the sordid history of the medicalized genital cutting movement in the volume that launched the modern intactivist movement.
1982 Former U.S. Surgeon General C. Everett Koop, M.D. wrote in the Saturday Evening Post: "All of the Western world raises its children uncircumcised and it seems logical that, with the extent of health knowledge in those countries, such a practice must be safe."
1983 Hugh C. Thompson recognized there did not appear to be any good reason to continue circumcision. [The Value of Neonatal Circumcision: An Unanswered and Perhaps Unanswerable Question. Am J Dis Child. — [full text]]
"Neonatologists have regarded the operation [circumcision] as without merit. Physicians in all fields agree on the necessity for careful explanation to the parents, preferably before the infant is born. They deplore the occasional grave complications that are largely produced by poor technique and inexperienced operators. One major reason formerly used to justify neonatal circumcision—correction or prevention of phimosis—has been shown to be untenable by serial studies from birth to adulthood. The major indications now proposed as justifying the procedure are prevention of penile [skin] cancer [which is rarer than male breast cancer] and balanitis and a reduction in herpes genitalis and, possibly, cancer of the uterine cervix [disproved and more recently shown to be caused by HPV]. These diseases are decades removed from the neonatal period, and opponents of circumcision regard them as lacking incontrovertible proof or as inconsequential."
1983 Money & Davison found that four of the five men circumcised as adults in their study rated penile sensitivity as diminished. They didn't describe the difference very articulately but they noted differences included "diminished penile sensitivity, less penile gratification, more penile pain, and cosmetic deformity".
"Removal of the entire foreskin, or even part of it, may require a change in masturbatory technique, insofar as there is less or no redundant [sic] skin to be stretched forward or backward [the eversion of the foreskin is more like rolling but with more fluidity]. Thus, there needs to be more reliance on some other surface, for example, the lubricated skin of the fingers or palm, to provide ether rotary or longitudinal friction directly to the shaft of the penis. What has been lost in circumcision is the stretch effect and hypothetically, receptors that provide proprioceptive stretch sensation from the foreskin. Inside the vagina, the penis must move in and out in the fashion of a finger, rather than being sometimes able, like the head of a turtle to pull in and out of the carapuce of its own foreskin, while the pubococcygeal muscles at the vaginal entrance grip the lower part of the shaft. Stretch sensations may be additionally altered if the frenulum is severed in the circumcision."
[Adult penile circumcision: erotosexual and cosmetic sequelae. J Sex Res.]
1985 Thomas E. Wiswell, a military doctor, used flawed methods to show that circumcision decreased incidence of urinary tract infections by comparing infants born prematurely to infants born at term. [Decreased incidence of urinary tract infections in circumcised male infants. Pediatrics.]
1985 Benjamin Spock finally updated the his best-selling parenting book (first published in 1946): "I strongly recommend leaving the foreskin alone. Parents should insist on convincing reasons for circumcision—and there are no convincing reasons that I know of." Later in a 1989 interview in Redbook, he stated "My own preference, if I had the good fortune to have another son, would be to leave his little penis alone."
1986 Aaron J. Fink claimed that circumcision prevented AIDS. [A possible explanation for heterosexual male infection with AIDS. NEJM.]
1988 Aaron J. Fink invented the idea that circumcision prevented neonatal group B streptococcal disease. [Is hygiene enough? Circumcision as a possible strategy to prevent group B streptococcal disease. AJOG.]
1989 Edgar J. Schoen leads the AAP Task Force on Circumcision declared circumcision is medically beneficial. Reported health benefits are hygiene, penile and cervical cancer, phimosis, STDs, and UTIs.
"In addition to the medical aspects, other factors will affect the parents' decisions, including esthetics, religion, cultural attitudes, social pressures, and tradition."
[Report of the Task Force on Circumcision. Pediatrics]
This report has been extensively criticized for it's failure to provide sound evidence of preventative effects of circumcision, it's lack of a cost-benefit analysis, it's failure to address the functions of the foreskin, and overall bias of the report.
[Matthew R. Giannetti. Circumcision and the American Academy of Pediatrics: Should Scientific Misconduct Result in Trade Association Liability? 85 Iowa L. Rev 1507 (2000).]

1990: ~68% of the newborn American male population is circumcised and 70% of adult men

1991 Edgar J. Schoen implored European doctors to institute mass circumcision. [Is it time for Europe to reconsider newborn circumcision? Acta Ped Scan.]
1991 Aaron J. Fink declares mass circumcision is necessary to prevent sand from getting into the soldiers' foreskins. [Circumcision and sand. JRSM.]
1994 Legal victory: Miltex, one of several Mogen clamp manufacturers, stopped distributing the devices in 1994. "Although no obvious defect has been found with the clamp's design or manufacturing we have concerns over the possible mishandling of the instrument by practitioners and our inability to ensure the instrument's proper use," Miltex's then-president Saul Kleinkramer wrote in a letter announcing the decision. The manufacturer was then in default on millions of dollars in lost lawsuits before millions more were lost in additional lawsuits, in total over $23 million. ["Injuries linked to circumcision clamps" Hennessy-Fiske. LA Times. 2011.]
1996 J. R. Taylor et al. found the average amount of foreskin amputated was 51% of the total penile skin on average. They identified the "ridged band contains more Meissner's corpuscles than does the smooth mucosa and exhibits features of specialized sensory mucosa."
"The 'ridged band' may be key to the persistent mislabelling of the inner lining of the prepuce as 'skin'; it is clearly visible on inspection of the retracted prepuce, it is continuous with the wrinkled true skin of the tip of the prepuce, and it looks like skin. Histology aside, the 'wrinkles' of the ridged band are regularly transverse and are difficult to efface by gentle stretching. A vascular blush is usually present.
The vascular ridges of the 'ridged band' and its Meissner's corpuscles firmly separate preputial epithelium from true skin and place preputial mucosa amongst other mucocutaneous mucosae. Winkelmann emphasized the structural and functional importance of junctional regions of the body and focused on mucocutaneous end-organs, or 'genital corpuscles', of the glans penis and prepuce. Some of these end-organs resemble Krause end-bulbs; others resemble Meissner's corpuscles.
Meissner's corpuscles of the prepuce may be compared with similar nerve-endings in the finger-tips and lips, which respond in a fraction of a second to contact with light objects that bring about deformation of their capsules. However, complex sensation, at least in the glans penis, may be mediated by free nerve-endings rather than by specialized end-organs."
[The prepuce: Specialized mucosa of the penis and its loss to circumcision. BJU.]
1996 Political victory against female genital cutting: Non-therapeutic female cutting in all forms were made illegal in the US. [United States Code, 2010 Ed., Title 18, Chapter 7 (Assault), §116 - Female genital mutilation]
1997 Edgar J. Schoen again suggested European countries should institute non-therapeutic circumcision. [Benefits of newborn circumcision: Is Europe ignoring the medical evidence? Arch Dis Child.]
1997 Lander et al. found that circumcision without anesthesia was extremely traumatic for babies. Before this, almost all neonatal cutting were done without anesthetic due to increased risks involved with using it and the prevalent false belief babies were not capable of feeling significant pain or can't remember it. [Comparison of ring block, dorsal penile nerve block, and topical anesthesia for neonatal circumcision. JAMA.]
1997 Taddio et al. wrote on the effect of the pain of infant circumcision being measurable later:
"Preliminary studies suggested that pain experienced by infants in the neonatal period may have long-lasting effects on future infant behaviour. The objectives of this study were to find out whether neonatal circumcision altered pain response at 4-month or 6-month vaccination compared with the response in uncircumcised infants...
"Multivariate ANOVA revealed a significant group effect (p < 0.001) in difference (vaccination minus baseline) values for percentage facial action, percentage cry time, and visual analogue scale pain scores. Univariate ANOVAs were significant for all outcome measures (p < 0.05): infants circumcised with placebo had higher difference scores than uncircumcised infants for percentage facial action (136.9 vs 77.5%), percentage cry duration (53.8 vs 24.7%), and visual analogue scale pain scores (5.1 vs 3.1 cm). There was a significant linear trend on all outcome measures, showing increasing pain scores from uncircumcised infants, to those circumcised with Emla [topical anesthetic], to those circumcised with placebo.
Circumcised infants showed a stronger pain response to subsequent routine vaccination than uncircumcised infants. Among the circumcised group, preoperative treatment with Emla attenuated the pain response to vaccination. We recommend [anesthetic] treatment to prevent neonatal circumcision pain."
[Effect of neonatal circumcision on pain response during subsequent routine vaccination. Lancet .]
1997 The AAP deems infant male circumcision to be an elective procedure rather than routine.
1998 Immerman and Mackey proposed that male genital cutting reorganizes the brain to restrain sexuality and positively influence both social and pair bonding. They noted: "It appears that any sensory deprivation of a system can also lead to cortical changes."
"They assumed desensitizing the penis should reduce sexuality, but that ignores the fact that genital cutting permanently externalizes the orgasmic interior parts of the penis. This sensorial change could as easily be thought to promote sexual thoughts. Supporting the later idea, there are exceptions, but generally homophobia is considerably more common in circumcising cultures or those derived from or strongly influenced by circumcising cultures. This could be because men with circumcised penises have more difficulty perceiving homosexuality as something other than sex."
1999 Cold & Taylor studied the foreskin's specialized innervation and concluded that it is "primary erogenous tissue necessary for normal sexual function." It is specialized, protective, erogenous tissue. A description of the complex nerve structure of the penis explains why anesthetics provide incomplete pain relief during circumcision. [The prepuce. BJU. pdf]
1999 The AAP Task Force on Circumcision reviewed 40 years worth of medical studies and concluded the "potential medical benefits of newborn male circumcision… are not sufficient to recommend routine neonatal circumcision." This report was the first time the AAP acknowledged that circumcision without anesthesia is traumatic and that if circumcision is to be done, anesthesia should be used. Some highlights from the report:
Role of Hygiene: "there is little evidence to affirm the association between circumcision status and optimum penile hygiene."
STDs including HIV: "behavioral factors appear to be far more important than circumcision status."
Penile Cancer: "in a developed country such as the United States, penile cancer is a rare disease and the risk of penile cancer developing in an uncircumcised man, although increased compared with a circumcised man, is low."
Urinary Tract Infections: "breastfeeding was shown to have a threefold protective effect on the incidence of UTI in a sample of uncircumcised infants. However, breastfeeding status has not been evaluated systematically in studies assessing UTI and circumcision status." meaning that the earlier UTIs studies results were confounded. Even if their numbers were accurate, in order to prevent one UTI during the first year of life by circumcising a baby boy, approximately 195 babies who will not get a UTI would need to be circumcised. Curiously, while female infants develop UTIs at higher rates than boys, the standard treatment is antibiotics not surgery. The AAP concludes this section noting that "the absolute risk of developing a UTI in an uncircumcised male infant is low (at most, ~1%)".
[AAP Task Force on Circumcision. Circumcision Policy Statement, Pediatrics 1999;103(3):686-93.]

2000: ~62% of the newborn American male population is circumcised and 75% of adult men

2003 Edgar J. Schoen pressured the AAP to reverse its policy on circumcision, claiming it prevents AIDS. [It's wise to circumcise: time to change policy. Pediatrics.]
2005-2007 Johns Hopkins three studies were all ended early with the conclusion that circumcision is "like a vaccine" that prevents HIV infection. These three African studies were widely reported falsely to be gold-standard evidence of major HIV benefit from circumcision. The results of the African RCTs could easily be explained by the varying levels of STI awareness counseling between the two groups because the counseling was provided along with the surgery. Selection bias in groups of men who wanted the surgery when half were denied what they wanted, while half were given the surgery they wanted and instructed about sexual disease and safe sex. In all the studies, five times more participants were lost than seroconverted. [Auvert, 2005; Bailey & Moses, 2005; Gray, 2007]
2000 The U.S. FDA "issued a public health notice about the Mogen and Gomco clamps after receiving about 20 injury reports a year since 1996, including lacerations, hemorrhaging, penile amputation and urethral damage. Instead of recalling the devices, the FDA advised users to make sure they were using the correct size Mogen clamp and that the space between the clamp's jaws met manufacturer's specifications. The agency also cautioned against using replacement parts on the Gomco clamp, which led it to malfunction.
But complications continued. In the 11 years between the FDA warnings and the Hall settlement, the agency has received 139 additional reports of problems related to circumcision clamps, including 51 injuries, said spokeswoman Amanda Sena. Twenty-one of those reports were related to Mogen clamps, all but one of which involved injuries. ["Injuries linked to circumcision clamps" Hennessy-Fiske. LA Times. 2011.]
2000 Circumcision is described as an intervention with long-term neurobehavioral effects:
"The brain of the newborn infant is particularly vulnerable to early adverse experiences, leading to abnormal development and behavior. Although several investigations have correlated newborn complications with abnormal adult behavior, our understanding of the underlying mechanisms remains rudimentary. Models of early experience, such as repetitive pain, sepsis, or maternal separation in rodents and other species have noted multiple alterations in the adult brain, correlated with specific behavioral types depending on the timing and nature of the adverse experience. The mechanisms mediating such changes in the newborn brain have remained largely unexplored. Maternal separation, sensory isolation (understimulation), and exposure to extreme or repetitive pain (overstimulation) may cause altered brain development. These changes promote two distinct behavioral types characterized by increased anxiety, altered pain sensitivity, stress disorders, hyperactivity/attention deficit disorder, leading to impaired social skills and patterns of self-destructive behavior. The clinical importance of these mechanisms lies in the prevention of early adverse experiences and effective treatment of newborn pain and stress."
[Anand, K. and Scalzo, F. Can Adverse Neonatal Experiences Alter Brain Development and Subsequent Behavior? Biol Neonate]
2001 Kenneth McGrath detailed the anatomy of the frenular delta. [The frenular delta: a new preputial structure In: Denniston GC, Hodges FM, Milos MF, editors. Understanding Circumcision: A Multi-Disciplinary Approach to a Multi-Dimensional Problem]
2002 D. Taves tested the hypothesis the foreskin reduces friction finding it did so more than 10 times (when friction is great enough to engage this feature). [The intromission function of the foreskin. Med Hypotheses.]
2003 Bensley & Boyle found circumcision contributes to vaginal dryness. Women reported they were significantly more likely to have experienced vaginal dryness during intercourse with circumcised than with genitally intact men. [Effects of Male Circumcision on Female Arousal and Orgasm. N Z Med J.]
2007 M. Sorrells tested the fine touch sensitivity of the penis and found the foreskin is the most sensitive part of the penis, while the glans is the least. [Fine touch pressure thresholds in the adult penis. BJU Int.NSFW diagram comparing circumcised and intact sensitivity (penis graphic)]
"The most sensitive location on the circumcised penis was the circumcision scar on the ventral surface. Five locations on the uncircumcised penis that are routinely removed at circumcision had lower pressure thresholds [i.e., were more sensitive] than the ventral scar of the circumcised penis."
YouTube: Morris Sorrels discusses his test and it's results
2007 The American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology (ACOG) recommended against performing female circumcision or other non-therapeutic female genital cutting surgeries, because the promotion of the surgery as sexually enhancing was not based on empirical evidence and the surgeries were not medically indicated. This was the first assertion of what had become common wisdom over only the past 30 years. Female cutting for benefits was being promoted in popular US media into the 1970s.

2010: ~58% of the newborn American male population is circumcised and 73% of adult men

https://preview.redd.it/2j9m4h0ilim51.png?width=600&format=png&auto=webp&s=f9d0171c30fc2358754a2e33b07eee15cfe0c4e6
2010 The American Academy of Pediatrics published a statement on Female Genital Cutting policy proposing a "ritual nick" to be performed by medical professionals. Outrage ensued. The statement was retracted one month later.
[Ritual Genital Cutting of Female Minors. AAP Committee in Bioethics]
2010 Royal Dutch Medical Association (KNMG) stated the foreskin is "a complex, erotogenic structure that plays an important role in the mechanical function of the penis during sexual acts, such as penetrative intercourse and masturbation". The organization also stated "circumcision of male minors is a violation of children’s rights to autonomy and physical integrity."
2011 Morten Frisch et al. examined associations of male circumcision with a range of measures of sexual dysfunction in both sexes.
The relevant graph from Circumstitions.com
"Age at first intercourse, perceived importance of a good sex life and current sexual activity differed little between circumcised and uncircumcised men or between women with circumcised and uncircumcised spouses. However, circumcised men reported more partners and were more likely to report frequent orgasm difficulties after adjustment for potential confounding factors [11 vs 4%, OR(adj) = 3.26; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.42-7.47], and women with circumcised spouses more often reported incomplete sexual needs fulfilment (38 vs 28%, OR(adj) = 2.09; 95% CI 1.05-4.16) and frequent sexual function difficulties overall (31 vs 22%, OR(adj) = 3.26; 95% CI 1.15-9.27), notably orgasm difficulties (19 vs 14%, OR(adj) = 2.66; 95% CI 1.07-6.66) and dyspareunia [painful intercourse] (12 vs 3%, OR(adj) = 8.45; 95% CI 3.01-23.74). Findings were stable in several robustness analyses, including one restricted to non-Jews and non-Moslems.
Our study shows hitherto unrecognized associations between male circumcision and sexual difficulties in both men and women. While confirmatory findings in other settings are warranted, notably from areas where neonatal circumcision is more common, our findings may inform doctors and parents of baby boys for whom the decision of whether or not to circumcise is not dictated by religious or cultural traditions. Additionally, since it appears from our study that both men and women may have fewer sexual problems when the man is uncircumcised, and because preputial plasties may sometimes serve as suitable alternatives to standard circumcision, our study may stimulate a more conservative, tissue-preserving attitude in situations where foreskin pathology requires surgical intervention."
[Male circumcision and sexual function in men and women: a survey-based, cross-sectional study in Denmark. Int J Epidemiol.]
YouTube: Medical researcher Morten Frisch speaks about research finding an increased rate of sexual difficulties correlating with circumcision
2012 S. Podnar found the ability to elicit the penilo-cavernosus reflex was suppressed by foreskin destruction. This reflex was non-elicitable in 8% of healthy intact men and 73% of the men with circumcised foreskin. [Clinical elicitation of the penilo-cavernosus reflex in circumcised men. BJU Int.]
2012 In a short-lived political victory followed by a loss, a Cologne District Court ruled that a boy's non-therapeutic circumcision constituted "bodily harm". In response to this legal precedent and resultant pressure from religious groups on politicians, the German legislature legalized non-therapeutic infant foreskin destruction less than a year later against the opinion of German Pediatricians and the majority of the nation.
2013 G. A. Bronselaer et al. surveyed over 1,000 intact and over 300 circumcised men in Belgium. They found:
"For the glans penis, circumcised men reported decreased sexual pleasure and lower orgasm intensity. They also stated more effort was required to achieve orgasm, and a higher percentage of them experienced unusual sensations (burning, prickling, itching, or tingling and numbness of the glans penis). For the penile shaft a higher percentage of circumcised men described discomfort and pain, numbness and unusual sensations. In comparison to men circumcised before puberty, men circumcised during adolescence or later indicated less sexual pleasure at the glans penis, and a higher percentage of them reported discomfort or pain and unusual sensations at the penile shaft.
This study confirms the importance of the foreskin for penile sensitivity, overall sexual satisfaction, and penile functioning. Furthermore, this study shows that a higher percentage of circumcised men experience discomfort or pain and unusual sensations as compared with the uncircumcised population. Before circumcision without medical indication, adult men, and parents considering circumcision of their sons, should be informed of the importance of the foreskin in male sexuality."
[Male circumcision decreases penile sensitivity as measured in a large cohort. BJU Int.]
2016 Jennofer Bossio publishes a study claiming no difference in penile sensitivity between circumcised and intact men. Though the intact men reported higher sensitivity for touch and vibration, she made her final conclusion based on the two groups response to pain, which showed jo statistical difference. [Examining Penile Sensitivity in Neonatally Circumcised and Intact Men Using Quantitative Sensory Testing. J Urol. 2016 Jun.]
The media, of course, ran with the conclusion, despite the methodological flaws in the study. Brian Earp discusses the study and it's limited impact on our understanding of long term effects of infant male circumcision.
[Infant Circumcision and Adult Penile Sensitivity.]
2017 The 2012 AAP statement on circumcision expired and since then, they have not released any policy statements on the procedure.
2018 In Iceland, the Progressive Party made a motion to ban all non therapeutic genital cutting of boys. The bill received massive pushback from religious communities. It has not been passed, but neither has it been scrapped.
[183/148 frumvarp: almenn hegningarlög]

Looking forward

This timeline is meant to help show the series of events that led us from a circumcision rate of almost zero, to a country of normalized, routine circumcision, and finally to a country desperately trying to justify the practice. Despite the most stubborn traditionalists, the practice is dying out. We can acknowledge the history of medical circumcision and recognize it is nothing but sexual violence and snake oil claims and bring this practice to a swift end, and ensure that out future children will live their lives with their whole bodies. Or we can cling to comforting lies, and allow the insecure and ignorant damage their children for life to protect their own egos. Future generations will look back at us now and have the same reactions of disgust and disbelief many readers here had when looking at the justifications given 100 or more years ago.
Our future children deserve better.

Previous: 1940-1979

submitted by DarthEquus to Intactivism [link] [comments]


2020.09.17 20:42 StevenStevens43 The birth of the Antiochus

The birth of the Antiochus
The Dardani:
Throughout the ages in this region, the word "Dan" has prevailed in seemingly many forms and abbreviations.
From the tribes of Dan in Israel, to the Denyans in Egypt, to the Tuatha de Dannan in Ireland, to the Danes in Denmark.
By the 4th Century BC, the Dardani were the strongest group in europe fighting against the Messenaean Greek expansion.
(Regards to the photo beneath.. When one see's a place name that contains two LL's, such as "Illyria", then one might suspect it has some pertinence with the Welsh language).
Dardani
The Dardani were a Paleo-Balkan tribe which lived in a region which was named Dardania) after their settlement there.[1][2]
Link for photo
Dardania
Celtic invasion:
You see, in this area, there was an "ongoing" power struggle going on between peoples with allegiances to the more Northern territories such as Scandinavia, and North western territories such as Albion/Britain, and those with allegiances more to traditional europeans and Anatolians, such as Greeks.
By the 4th century BC, the power struggle in this region was on scales, going back and forth like a yoyo, and in the 4th Century BC the Celts came down hard, and established a very powerful base, named Dardania.
Dardania
The Kingdom of Dardania was attested since the 4th century BC in ancient sources reporting the wars the Dardanians waged against Macedon. After the Celtic invasion of the Balkans weakened the state of the Macedonians and Paeonians, the political and military role of the Dardanians began to grow in the region
Link for photo_DARDANIAN_KINGDOMS_EXTENT_DURING_230_BC.png)
Illyria
Albania:
Now, Dardani is pretty much synonymous with Albania.
Names
The names Dardania appears to be connected to Albanian dardhë.[13] In 1854, Johann Georg von Hahn was the first to propose that the names Dardanoi and Dardania) were related to the Albanian word dardhë ("pear, pear-tree"),
Link for photo
The Alba Albanian flag
Greko-Roman:
In fact, the contemporary understanding that Greko-Romans, unlike indigenous Greeks, or Indigenous Italians, are in fact the descendants of multi-culturistic Greek diversity, would mean they are also partially the descendants of peoples from the Balkans, that probably originate from more Baltic lands than Balkan, had to be explained away by the early Roman emperors that were now trying to justify wars against the Dardani.
And they admitted (in not so many words), that they are partially descended from Dardani peoples, but that the Dardani are unevolved partial ancestors, and they do not have the same levels of sophistication as the Greeks, that Greco-Romans are also descended from, thus, they are barbarians.
ancient sources
The rulers of some of the great powers of antiquity, such as Epirus), Macedonia) and Rome, claimed a Trojan ancestry linking themselves to Dardanus), who according to the tradition was the founder of the Trojan ruling house. But if Dardanus and the tribes over which he ruled were descended from the Balkan people, who were considered "barbarians" by the Romans, it would have been an embarrassment. Thus, by Roman times the connection was explained by a movement that occurred in the opposite direction proposing that Dardanus caused the settling of the Dardani west of the Thracians, accepting the version that the Dardani were a people related to the Trojans, but that they had degenerated to a state of "barbarism" in their new settlement).[19]
Link for photo
Beheaded barbarian
Alexander the Great:
The Dardani would expand their power, conquering the whole of Macedonia, and would almost be united with the Persian Achaemenid empire, when Alexander the Great would come along and reclaim Macedonia.
4th century BC
In 334 BC, under the leadership of Cleitus, the son of Bardylis, the Dardani, in alliance with other Illyrian tribes attacked Macedonia held by Alexander the Great. The Dardani managed to capture some cities but were eventually defeated by Alexander's forces.[21]
Link for photo.jpg)
Alexander the Great
Hellenstic empire:
Of course, under Alexanders reign, Macedonia would be at the centre of the worlds biggest empire, and the Achaemenid empire would become collapsed.
Alexander the Great
Alexander endeavoured to reach the "ends of the world and the Great Outer Sea" and invaded India in 326 BC, winning an important victory over the Pauravas at the Battle of the Hydaspes. He eventually turned back at the demand of his homesick troops, dying in Babylon in 323 BC, the city that he planned to establish as his capital, without executing a series of planned campaigns that would have begun with an invasion of Arabia. In the years following his death, a series of civil wars tore his empire apart, resulting in the establishment of several states ruled by the Diadochi, Alexander's surviving generals and heirs.
Pharoah:
Of course, his place in history would be cemented when he removed the Persians from the Egyptian throne, and became crowned Pharoah, in 332 BC, thus founding the foundations for the Ptolemic empire.
Egypt
Alexander advanced on Egypt in later 332 BC, where he was regarded as a liberator.[80] He was pronounced son of the deity Amun at the Oracle of Siwa Oasis in the Libyan desert.[81] Henceforth, Alexander often referred to Zeus-Ammon as his true father, and after his death, currency depicted him adorned with the Horns of Ammon as a symbol of his divinity.[82] During his stay in Egypt, he founded Alexandria-by-Egypt, which would become the prosperous capital of the Ptolemaic Kingdom after his death.[83]
Roman alliances:
From the get go, the Ptolomists were keen to form alliances with their sophisticated cousins, the Romans.
Foreign affairs)
He had much less success in his attempts to negotiate a peace between the Macedonia and the Roman Republic in the First Macedonian War (215-205 BC).[24] Ptolemy made large financial contributions to a number of Greek cities in order to gain their favour. He was responsible for the city walls at Gortyn in Crete[25] Ptolemy was honoured for his benefactions with monuments and cults in his honour at various cities, including Rhodes and Oropus[26][27]
In the west, Ptolemy maintained friendly neutrality with the Roman Republic and Carthage, which were fighting against one another in the Second Punic War (218-201 BC). He received a friendly embassy from the Romans in 210 BC, requesting a gift of grain to help feed the starving populus. It is unknown how Ptolemy responded to this request.[28]
Link for photo
Ptolomy IV
Assassination of Alexander IV:
However, the war was far from over, and Alexander the Greats 14 year old son would be assassinated before he could rule Egypt, passing the Pharoahship to the Roman-Greco Ptolomy's.
Death of Alexander IV
However, Green thinks that Heracles was killed after Alexander IV's assassination.[8]
Link for photo
Alexandros IV
Dardanian alliance:
The Dardanian elitists, in true aristocratic fashion, tried to get their foot on the throne another way, by offering to protect the Hellenstic empire against Celtic invasion, by forming allegiances.
Which of course, would result in concessions.
However Ptolomy quite wisely refused, and decided to fight the Celtic armies himself.
1st - 3rd century BC
Celts were present in Dardania in 279 BC.[25] The Dardanian king offered to help the Macedonians with 20,000 soldiers against the Celts, but this was refused by Macedonian king Ptolemy Keraunos.[26]
brennus:
Now, another king that was involved in this invasion beginning around 279 BC, was one of the Brennos brothers.
If you would like to know which one of the brothers it was, and what country he was king of, then simply go to the lobby after reading this article, and read the article "Belinus and Brennius and the sack of rome".
But, Belinas, king of Albany and Cambria, was reported to have committed suicide during this war.
It is likely he did so by jumping off the tower of Apollo.
To find out why it is likely that he jumped off the tower of apollo, simply see other articles in lobby.
Brennus
Another Brennus) was one of the leaders of the army of Gauls who attempted to invade and settle in the Greek mainland in 278 BC. After a looting spree and after managing to pass Thermopylae by encircling the Greek army and forcing it to retreat he made his way to the rich treasury at Delphi but he was defeated by the re-assembled Greek army. Brennus was heavily injured at the battle of Delphi and committed suicide there.
Link for photo#/media/File:Naxos_Sphinx_with_humans_for_size.jpg)
Tower of Apollo
Belgae:
Now, it is very likely that one of the main armies of the Brennos, during their sack of Rome, and conquest of Macedonia, prior to attempting to conquer Athens, were the Belgae.
In fact, Brennius and Belinus where likely one of the Belgae themselves, as "Belgae" was just part of a wider branch of Gaelic speaking Gauls that spread from Britain, Ireland and throughout mainland europe.
The differences between Belgae, and other Gauls, would be simple dialectics, with one another still able to speak to eachother, even if in a totally different accent, or, with slightly different spellings and pronounications.
Beli and Belinus
The consensus among linguists is that the ethnic name Belgae comes from the Proto-Celtic root \belg-* or \bolg-* meaning "to swell (particularly with angebattle fury/etc.)", cognate with the Dutch adjective gebelgd "very angry" (weak perfect participle of the verb belgen "to become angry") and verbolgen "being angry" (strong perfect participle of obsolete verbelgen "to make angry"), as well as the Old English verb belgan, "to be angry" (from Proto-Germanic \balgiz), derived ultimately from the Proto-Indo-European root *\bhelgh-* ("to swell, bulge, billow"). Thus, a Proto-Celtic ethnic name \Bolgoi* could be interpreted as "the people who swell (particularly with angebattle fury)".[3]
Link for photo
Belgia
Julius Caesar:
Now, a lot of confusion and damage was caused by the politics of Julius Caesar, who decided to draw lines between Gallic countries, and insist they are seperate peoples.
His historical understanding is not actually shared by today's contemporary scholar and historian, and was not even shared amongst his own Greco allies, that thought there was an extremely small difference between Gauls, and Germanics, and tribes from other gaelic speaking parts of Gaul.
Strabos obviously did not share Caesars political reasoning.
Origins of Belgae
.[8] Ancient sources such as Caesar are not always clear about the things used to define ethnicity today. While Caesar or his sources described the Belgae as distinctly different from the Gauls, Strabo stated that the differences between the Celts (Gauls) and Belgae, in countenance, language, politics, and way of life was a small one, unlike the difference between the Aquitanians and Celts.[9] The fact that the Belgae were living in Gaul means that in one sense they were Gauls. This may be Caesar's meaning when he says "The Belgae have the same method of attacking a fortress as the rest of the Gauls".[10]
Belgae in Britain:
Now, most of the most southern regions of Albion/Briton, were inhabited by Belgae.
The Belgae are even said to be the same peoples as the Irish Fir-Bolg.
Which is hardly surprising, as they spoke the same language as Irish people.
The name belgium, comes from the Belgae.
Belgae
Some peoples in Britain were also called Belgae and O'Rahilly equated them with the Fir Bolg in Ireland. The Belgae gave their name to the Roman province of Gallia Belgica and, much later, to the modern country of Belgium; today "Belgae" is also Latin for "Belgians".
Link for photo
British Belgae
The birth of the Antiochus:
Now, Ptolomy was doing very well in Egypt, until the rise of Antiochus III's selecud empire invaded and conquered Alexander the greats old lands, including macedonia, and re-established the Iranian/Aryan persian titles.
It is likely that the attacks from Belinus & the Belgae had a "huge" role to play in this success.
Antiochus III
Antiochus III the Great /ænˈtaɪəkəs/ (Greek: Ἀντίoχoς Μέγας; c. 241 – 3 July 187 BC, ruled April/June 222 – 3 July 187 BC)[1] was a Macedonian Hellenistic king and the 6th ruler of the Seleucid Empire.[2][3][4] He ruled over the region of Syria and large parts of the rest of western Asia towards the end of the 3rd century BC. Rising to the throne at the age of eighteen in 222 BC, his early campaigns against the Ptolemaic Kingdom were unsuccessful, but in the following years Antiochus gained several military victories and substantially expanded the empire's territory. His traditional designation, the Great, reflects an epithet he assumed. He also assumed the title Basileus Megas (Greek for "Great King"), the traditional title of the Persian kings. A militarily active ruler, Antiochus restored much of the territory of the Seleucid Empire,
Link for photo,late_1st_century_BC%E2%80%93early_1st_century_AD,_Louvre_Museum(7462828632).jpg)
Antiochus III
Anti-Roman freedom fighter:
Now, Antichus III "is not" Greek in the slightest.
He is a blond haired blue eyed boy.
He has conquered Greece from the Greco-Romans.
So, in that sense, yes, he is Greek.
But he announces himself to the world as a freedom fighter fighting against the growing Roman empire.
His invasion of Greece is of course, a huge blow to the Greco-Roman Hellenstic world.
Antiochus III
Declaring himself the "champion of Greek freedom against Roman domination", Antiochus III waged a four-year war against the Roman Republic beginning in mainland Greece in the autumn of 192 BC[5][6]
Link for photo
Seleucid expansion
Roman alliance:
Now, just as Antiochus was about to walk in to Egypt and hand Ptolomy his p45, the Romans decided to ally themselves with Ptolomy after-all, and they came to the rescue.
War against Rome and death
In 192 BC Antiochus invaded Greece with a 10,000-man army, and was elected the commander in chief of the Aetolian League.[19] In 191 BC, however, the Romans under Manius Acilius Glabrio) routed him at Thermopylae), forcing him to withdraw to Asia Minor. The Romans followed up their success by invading Anatolia, and the decisive victory of Scipio Asiaticus at Magnesia ad Sipylum (190 BC), following the defeat of Hannibal at sea off Side, delivered Asia Minor into their hands.[13]
Link for photo
Alban hills
Alban hills:
Now, the early Octavians, from house of Octavius, which was the house Julius Caesar was from, sided with Ptolomy, despite the fact that they themselves are partially descended from Gauls from the Alban hills dating back to Alba longa.
Instead of admit this, they choose to insist that Alba longa is a myth and legend, and instead their real ancestors are the Gods.
Octavia Gens origin
The Octavii originally came from the Volscian town of Velitrae, in the Alban Hills. The historian Suetonius writes,
Towards the end of the Republic, it became fashionable for noble families to trace their origin to the gods and heroes of olden time,
Link for photo#/media/File:Gaius_Octavius,_father_of_Augustus.jpg)
Gaius Octavius
Antiochus:
Now, Ptolomy V is actually related to Antiochus III, through Antiochuses patriarch grandfather, Antiochus, who was the brother of the Ptolomy patriarch, ptolomy.
Antiochus)
Antiochus (Greek: Ἀντίοχος; fl. 4th century BC) was a Macedonian) man who lived during the time of Philip II of Macedon (ruled 359-336 BC). He originally came from Orestis), Macedonia.
Antiochus served as an officer under Philip II, and gained distinction as a military general. Antiochus was from an upper noble family. His father was probably called Seleucus, his brother was called Ptolemy)
Link for photo_(cropped).jpg)
Julius Caesar
Beli mawr:
Therefore, when Beli mawr claims to be related to the mother of Jesus, it is actually not impossible that a person with an Anti-Roman agenda, could in fact be a Belgian.
As the Antiochuses are a North western branch of a family which inter-bred with Messenaeans and fathered some of the most well known emperors of our time, including Egyptian emperors, and Roman emperors, who they later grew to despise.
Beli mawr
Beli Mawr ("Beli the Great") was an ancestor figure in Middle Welsh literature and genealogies. He is the father of Cassivellaunus, Arianrhod, Lludd Llaw Eraint, Llefelys, and Afallach. In certain medieval genealogies he is listed as the son or husband of Anna, cousin of Mary, mother of Jesus.
Cleopatra 1:
And Cleopatra I was likely a Belgae also.
And she was the daughter of Antiochus III that married Ptolomy V after her fathers death.
Cleopatra I
Cleopatra I Syra (Greek: Κλεοπάτρα Σύρα; c. 204 – 176 BC) was a princess of the Seleucid Empire, Queen of Ptolemaic Egypt by marriage to Ptolemy V of Egypt, and regent of Egypt during the minority of their son, Ptolemy VI, from her husband’s death in 180 BC until her own death in 176 BC.
And she was the daughter of Antiochus III that married Ptolomy V after her fathers death.
Life
Cleopatra I was the daughter of Antiochus III the Great, King of the Seleucid Empire, and Queen Laodice III.

submitted by StevenStevens43 to AhrensburgCulture [link] [comments]


2020.09.17 13:02 closeprotections Close Protection London Close Protection Services London

Close protection – is a concept that has been known for ages – it has been with us since early days of humankind and now its condition is more than satisfactory. Since time immemorial, people have tried to protect their wealth, assets, as well as their own health, life, and welfare. By means of the transfer of gathered goods, wealthy individuals have been paying other parties to protect them, their families, and possessions from others. As a general rule, young, notably strong, and grim-looking individuals have been considered perfectly suitable for such a job. The idea behind such a choice has been to scare away a potential adversary by taking advantage of the very looks of the guard. The aforementioned state of affairs has been observed for the consecutive ages. Wealthy landowners and kings created their own trusted guards (in ancient times and during the medieval age, those were troops designated to protect the authorities; later on, they were transformed into elite soldiers). Aside from serving representative and managerial purposes, such individuals were required to take care of their master and his beloved ones. In the 11th century England, during the Battle of Hastings, King Harold assembled a group of troops to protect his life and widely understood health condition. One may consider them to be the ancestors of modern bodyguards. As both civilization and society progressed, there were an increasing number of various organizations and people. Therefore, the risk of attack was significantly higher. Numerous authorities attempted to discourage potential aggressors from committing a crime by introducing severe forms of punishment. It must be noted, however, that there was still the question if it was enough to protect high authorities and the wealthy from the effects of outside attacks. The protection-oriented market has been developing to be – at some point – dominated by professional soldiers. The said progression has made it possible for police officers to investigate and deal with common, less dangerous crimes only. Together with technical revolution and the increasing social awareness, the number of citizens not satisfied with the current order skyrockets. It is likely to cause radical groups aiming at the change of the existing ruling paradigm to occur. This in turn may lead to anarchy and the increase in people willing to put their antisocial theories and plans into effect. The latter may start from sabotaging the work of others and demolishing valuable devices, but it may also end up in killings. If such a thing happens, one may openly talk about terrorism. The unusual social situation boosts the demand for personal protection. Both the army and police focus on securing the wellbeing of those of high position in the country. The rest of the threatened society must protect itself. The demand identified above has given rise to a new profession – a security guard. In the past, it was performed in a more or less organized fashion and that is why the effectiveness of arising task achievement varied. The attempt on Tsar’s Alexander the Second life on 1st March 1881 is a perfect exemplification of the formulated thesis. The ruler in question was attacked by the members of Narodnaya Volya at 2:15 P.M. A bomb was thrown under the carriage, but its explosion did not harm either the tsar or the horses. Alexander the Second, together with his companion including secret police representatives, started to assess damages. It was a mistake. At 2:20 P.M, yet another bomb was detonated. Its accuracy was notably higher as it managed to severely injure the tsar. He died relatively quickly, even with professional care he was under. At this point, it must be indicated that the demand for close protection increases. However, the perception of it is in a significant number of cases rather faulty, leading to pitiful outcomes. As it was hundreds of years earlier, modern people tend to hire grim musclemen to protect them, disregarding the fact that their intellectual level and possessed knowledge are negligible. Formerly, a test had to be passed in order for a person to be considered a bodyguard. Unfortunately, it does not hold true anymore. On numerous occasions, we can observe security guards stylized to look like stats of action movies, with the lack of intelligence written all over their faces. To give them justice, such people may also perform exceptionally well – up to the time they encounter a real attack. Unprofessional guards may be employed to protect rock stars or boxers. Real bodyguards of today are, however, highly skilled and motivated. They are trained to prevent rather than to counteract, as it may be too late in the latter case. Such people are capable of estimating potential risk and juxtaposing it with the resources at their disposal that may minimize it. Modern security guards are physically active, as well as skilled in giving first aid and driving a car defensively. They can fight without using any weapon – especially by taking advantage of psychology and persuasion. Such people are proficient in at least two languages and are characterized by an above-average intelligence level. The described model of a security guard is perfectly suited to current conditions and the needs of individuals hiring them.

VIP close protection over the world – organizations specializing in personal protection. One of the most famous and at the same time – the oldest organized bodies dealing with close protection was created in the 19th century. It was the American United States Secret Service. The USSS was created in 1865 as the US Treasury Law Enforcement Agency. Secret Service is the oldest national agency focusing entirely on investigations. Initially, their only task was to protect the economic structure of the country by means of preventing governmental cheques and bonds from being counterfeited. The mission was followed up to 1901, when president William McKinley was attacked in Buffalo (NY state). The assault resulted in appointing the Secret Service by the US Congress to protect the newly elected president, Theodore Roosevelt. In 1906, the Congress finally adopted the act on the responsibility of the Secret Service for the safety of the White House. Since 1950, the protection has been extended from presidents and first ladies only to vice-presidents as well. Before the murder of John F. Kennedy in 1963 and senator Robert F. Kennedy in 1968, the Secret Service had been a relatively small organization, employing as many as 284 agents. The discussed events translated directly into its rapid development. Currently, it is stated that over 5000 employees work for the Secret Service. Separate branches of the organization are located all over the United States, in Puerto Rico, and in other places all over the world (Paris, Lyon, London, Bonn, Rome, Milano, Hong Kong, Montreal, Lefkosa, Bogota, and Manila). The representatives of the organization are both secret agents (serving protection and investigation-related roles), as well as uniformed units responsible for the safety of the White House and diplomatic outposts. They maintain law and order by means of the network of both foot and motorized patrols, as well as of fixed posts. Such people also support other branches of the Secret Service. A wide scope of professional is also employed therein – those are electronics, engineers, communication experts, protection-related professionals, and IT workers. The Secret Service protects the president with his family, vice-president, elected vice-president, candidates for the said posts (from the 120th day before the elections onwards), former president, his children up to 16, as well as heads of other states staying in the USA in order to realize international missions. The unit of the Secret Service liable for taking care about the safety of the president in the White House fulfills its duties in identical uniforms. Due to the said fact, the Secret Service is sometimes referred to as the Uniformed Division. Its tasks also include the protection of president’s mansions, diplomatic outposts in Washington, and places alike located within the borders of the USA.

Another known formation is the Swiss Guard (Latin: Cohors Helvetica) which was for the very first time gathered on 22nd January 1506 by the then pope – Julius II. Its major aim was to protect the spiritual successor of Saint Peter and his palace. The pope wanted to grant himself protection from the enemies and avoid a political murder. In 1512, the Guard secured Vatican against French soldiers. The Defendants of the Church, as the representatives of the discussed formation were also called, had to face the biggest trail while taking care of pope Clemens VII during the invasion of Roman emperor, Charles V. The boldness, discipline, and resourcefulness of the representatives of the Guard made it possible to save the life of the pope, even though about 600 bold men died in the process. To commemorate the event, a solemn vow of the newly appointed guards takes place every year on 6th May. Each of the Swiss guards-to-be holds a banner in his left hand and raises his right hand with the thumb and two other fingers in an upright position (it is the symbol of the Holy Trinity). Then, the new soldiers promise to protect the pope and – to die in his defense if necessary. The representatives of the Swiss Guard are chosen from men between the age of 19 and 25 living in one of Swiss cantons (basing on contracts with Zurich and Lucerne). Each of them has to be at least 174 cm (5 feet and a half inch) tall and be an unmarried practicing Catholic (according to a special letter issued by the local bishop). Candidates for the service are properly trained, including teaching them how to use firearms, side arms, as well as how to defend themselves and establish proper contacts with other people. One of the items of the list is the proper usage of halberd. Currently, the number of soldiers in the Guard is estimated to circulate around 120, including officers, junior, and senior soldiers. They serve in the formation from two to twenty-five years. It must be also indicated at this point that officers and senior sergeants may be granted by the pope the right to enter into a holy matrimony. Aside from their characteristic outfit, soldiers are additionally equipped with halberds and Renaissance swords – those are the symbols of formation’s tradition. Nowadays, they are also fitted with firearms, tear gas, and excellent communication-oriented devices. With its almost five hundred years of heritage, the Swiss Guard is one of the oldest active defense-oriented groups in the world. One may assume that it will last until Switzerland and the Catholic Church exist.

Yet another example of a close protection-focused formation is the Cedrug Order, the major task of which is to take care about the ruler of Tibet – Dalai Lama. It comprises of national spiritual authorities who organized themselves in a form of an order. Thanks to strict upbringing, their physical strength is much higher than the one of secular officials. Therefore, the former are the most trusted soldiers caring about the safety of the leader of the nation. Cedurg School is located in the left wing of Potala – the palace of Dalai Lama, which is in turn situated in the Holy City of Lhasa (eastern Tibet, Kyitsu river valley). Every Tibet citizen is allowed to enroll to the school, but only chosen ones are granted the privilege to join the Order. For several hundred years, there have been a limited number of monks allowed, namely – 175. Only selected candidates have been worthy enough to defend the powerful Dalai Lama. Those are especially bold, tall, and muscular men. The representatives of the Order earned their name in 1959, when they protected the king of Tibet against Chinese adversaries.

One of the biggest organizations in the world established to consociate and train bodyguards is the International Bodyguard Association (IBA). The IBA was established in 1957 in Paris by major Lucien Victor Ott. Major Ott had been closely connected to the French Foreign Legion in Algeria since his early childhood. He had been born and raised in the said country. In 1947, he joined the French Special Forces and took part in France-Indochina war. Furthermore, he was the participant of the battle of Dien-Bien Phu that ended with the defeat of the French forces. He was being injured and captured by Vietminh. After a bold escape, he decided to join forces with the French Military Intelligence (Deuxieme Bureau). Major Lucien Ott got famous due to, inter alia, perfect securing of president Charles de Gaulle against the OAS terrorist organization. Thanks to him, 30 prepared attacks were foiled, 11 of which were aimed directly at the head of the state. After the death of the creator of a modern bodyguard profile, major Ott, one of his students – James G. Shortt took care of the management of the IBA. As a young man, he had joined a cadet school. Later on, he had become landing operation troops officer and a member of the elite SAS (Special Air Service) unit. Moreover, during his service, he also taught soldiers in Afghanistan the art of Mujahedeen war. Currently, he teaches security guards, police officers, and soldiers all over the world in the IBA branches. The main aim of the organization is to properly prepare bodyguards-to-be to properly perform their duties. It is not an entity employing such individuals, but those who have presented exceptional skills may become members of royal, diplomatic, or personal guards recommended by the IBA. Coaches being the representatives of the organization trained bodyguards in Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania, as well as helped during the Baltic Crisis between 1989 and 1991. The qualifications of the International Bodyguard Association are exceptional, international, and backed by the documentation concerning the organization of training sessions for the military, governmental authorities, police, and private bodyguards all over the world. Such undertakings have been continuously performed since 1957. The IBA also operates and trains willing individuals in Poland. Its branch was established in the said country in 1992. The basic training offered to candidates includes 60 hours of comprehensive preparation divided into six consecutive days. After its completion, the candidates are required to undergo the so-called refresher once a year. It is one of the conditions of the membership in the IBA.

Another training organization worth mentioning is the ESI - Executive Security International. It must be highlighted that it is one of the biggest and most appreciated American companies oriented towards training personal protection guards. Its second name is as follows: Bodyguard Training Academy for Executive, Dignitary and Celebrity Protection. The ESI was formed at the beginning of the 80s by Bob Duggan – martial arts expert and master in Hwarang Do. Its creation had been preceded by the establishment of the very first bodyguard training program by the Martial Arts Academy in Aspen, Colorado. The ESI, being one of the USA’s private schools, offers its students over 2000 hours of education with regard to protection, investigation, data gathering, company and individual security, etc. The training unit of the organization is situated high up in the mountains and is run by skilled professionals. Fun fact – film writer, Tracy Keenan Wynn, cooperates with the ESI. His preeminent task has been to create scenarios of situational exercises. While writing them, the said individual takes advantage of real life situations and attacks, such as assaults on Aldo Moro, John Paul the Second, kidnapping of Hans Martin Schleyer by the RAF (Red Army Faction), and scenarios alike. The ESI collaborates with corporations operating in the close protection branch of industry, as well as with the police and military. The organized training sessions are top secret. No journalists are allowed to enter the Aspen unit. Due to the fact that the ESI is a private school, it may provide professional training to civil, police-related, and military institutions all over the world.

The citizens of Israel have never had the chance to feel safe in their country. The issue of safety has been always treated seriously there. Aside from a constant Israel-Arab world conflict threat, the Israelis have been the subjects of terrorist attracts, both within the borders of their country and outside it. Jews and Americans are most frequent victims of operations organized by highly skilled terrorist groups. Taking into account the impact the Russian mafia has on Israel, the amount of care put on widely understood safety is fully justified. The Israeli Special Forces protect their citizens by means of intelligence and security-oriented undertakings. They host training sessions in various organizations preparing bodyguards, providing the adepts with the experience gained during the service. Most famous units of the said kind in Israel are undoubtedly the ISA - International Security Academy and the ISS - International Security School.

ISA is an international organization established and managed by former leaders, police instructors, and special service members. The very first unit of the ISA was formed in Latvia as a training and advising agency for both governmental and private security guards belonging to the Baltic States and the countries of the former USSR. The fact that the ISA is not exclusively Israeli in character is proved by the figure of the organization chairman, major Urlich Wegener – the creator and very first leader of German Border Control Service called GSG 9. The team of instructors and coaches also has international roots. The credo of the organization is that the preparation of the individuals for the proper protection of others is the key. Such people have to be offered highest quality training, extensive knowledge, and practical background. The ISS training programs are based predominantly on the experiences gained in Israel and in other countries, as well as while training people for the purpose of protecting VIPs over the world. Individuals, governmental authorities, and large-size corporations have been taking advantage of the services provided by the ISA/ISS.

At the moment, civil bodyguards are also involved in close protection. The safety of the individuals hiring them, as well as their possessions depends highly on the qualifications of the former. Quite frequently, those are former policemen, soldiers, or special force members. However, a number of inexperienced adepts would like to start their adventure with personal protection as well. Are they bound to fail in their attempts? It is not always so. The most crucial component affecting the effectiveness of the training is one’s psychological preparation. It is a commonly known fact that it is exceptional in former police officers and troops. However, it is a common belief that one can be trained how to perform the job of a bodyguard, just as it is possible to teach a person how to shoot or be properly engaged in melee combat. It all depends on one’s motivation and willingness to achieve success in the industry. Regulations to date limit the training process of a security guard to the moment of being awarded with a license. In order to perform his tasks properly, such a person has to constantly improve his skills and qualifications.

Phenomena connected with the need of utilization of close protection techniques – Terrorism/Terrorist. It goes without saying that terrorism is one of the biggest threats of today’s world. While analyzing the severity of attacks and their scale, one should not doubt that VIPs should be at all possible occasions protected against the aforementioned forms of assault. In order to assess the threat a given problem pose, its specificity must be identified at first. The notion of „terrorism” was for the first time in history used during the Conference of the International Criminal Law Association in Brussels, in 1930. To date, there have been approximately 200 various definitions of the phenomenon in question. While trying to grasp its characteristic features, one will face a number of limitations and difficulties. One of statements of historian Walter Laqueur has to be touched upon here. While asked why he has been avoiding formulating an unequivocal definition of terrorism, he replied: „For 50 or so years, people are constantly trying to understand the idea behind terrorism. It is a phenomenon having different forms, depending on its place of origin and epoch. How can one find common ground between Russian revolutionists from the end of the 19th century and Al-Qaida anarchists?

Terrorism is mainly based on the utilization of force or threat in order to achieve political or ideological goals. It is hard to say something beyond that. Terrorism is like pornography – it escapes logical classification, but if one sees it – then it becomes apparent.” It is hard to argue with the statement, as it perfectly shows the complexity of the phenomenon in question. For the purpose of this publication, a strict definition of terrorism is not needed. All that is required is the utterance formulated by Walter Laqueur stating that terrorism can be most fully perceived through its manifestations. Terrorist acts are undoubtedly illegal, as they are based on kidnapping people and forcedly taking control over means of communication, economic sabotage, attacks, robberies, demanding ransom to finance organization’s own activity, posing threat to life, health, and freedom of authorities, and kidnapping people from outside the area in order to gain publicity (especially journalists, priests, voluntary workers). One may also indicate the usage of explosives and firearms in public areas and poisoning certain spots by means of radioactive materials and chemicals. Longin Tadeusz Szmidt additionally pointed out that terrorism has always been strictly connected with crafty and hard to identify methods of killing the leaders of nations. While describing the phenomenon of terrorism as a threat for the protected person, one should also point out and indicate its sources. The following are enumerated: - social and economic sources that are directly connected to economic crises, social tensions, social and national discrimination, as well as with the perception of dissonance between the factual reality and the one presented by the media; - historical and political sources. They have their beginning in severe social reactions, demanding full democratization and respecting human rights; - sociological sources that may be related to the atmosphere typical for a given country or the so-called spirit of violence; - psychological sources stating that a significant part of terrorists is highly mentally unstable which is additionally combined with the overly high self-esteem. When it comes to the area of attack, the following are proposed by the experts: - land terrorism (the major threat area for VIPs and the key one for security guards), - air terrorism (personal protection is then entrusted to the authorities managing planes, airports, etc.), and – maritime terrorism (tasks and responsibilities are then similar to air attacks). While taking into account the type of terroristic activities, one may distinguish: bombing-based, nuclear, biological, chemical, technical, cybernetic (attacks on IT networks), and narcotic-oriented (narcotic cartels undertakings) terrorism. The highest threat for VIPs is undoubtedly the first type, namely – bombing-based one. Close protection-oriented undertakings should therefore incorporate the knowledge on paradigms effective during a bomb attack. They will be discussed in further sections of this publication. It is exceptionally difficult to argue with the thesis that we must be protected against terrorism. The same applies to VIPs. The importance of the latter is also worth discussing, as the threat is much higher when a top authority is attacked than when the assault poses threat to a pop star or a wealthy businessman. However, it does not limit the necessity to analyze and counteract terroristic attack threat. It may directly impact the safety of the person a given security guard is responsible for.

Crime is also one of the issues that may endanger protected VIPs. Up to the beginning of the 80s, Poland had been considered to be one of the safest countries in Europe. Law enforcement bodies had been numerous and properly financed there, and crime forecasting, prevention, and penalizing schemes had met all the European standards. However, at the end of the discussed period, the myth of threat-free Poland started to crumble. The effects of crime fighting scene were becoming gradually more negligible. The said state of affairs was predominantly caused by the decreasing trust in law enforcing organizations, as well as by the rapid increase in crimes committed by the citizens. Another important aspect that must be taken into account were economic and political changes taking place in 1989,the liberalization of economic activity, and the emergence of free market. Some individuals possessed unimaginable riches, whereas others were exceptionally poor. In order to survive till the next day, the latter searched for the answer in crimes, leading to the occurrence of the phenomenon commonly known as organized crime. According to official data from 2001, within the borders of Poland, there were over 400 organized crime groups consociating approximately 45 thousand people. They were generating profits by means of goods smuggling, selling stolen cars, producing and marketing narcotics, counterfeiting national currency, commuting bank frauds, selling firearms, and – what is of exceptional importance from the point of view of VIPs – demanding ransom. Criminals induce fear in the society, especially due to using terror and blackmailing. They do not hesitate to kidnap others or kill them. Such individuals resort to brutal treatment, such as beating, torturing, drowning, etc. All those factors combined directly translate into wealthy representatives of the society feeling threatened. What is more, criminals frequently tend to attack the family of a VIP as well, in order to convince him to perform a given action. Therefore, children, wife, and beloved ones of such an individual must be highly protected.

Popularity/Fame –The threat of attack may be in some cases linked to the popularity of a given human being. When a VIP is in isolation, then he may only receive unwanted phone calls or be nagged by photographers. The problem arises when he has to leave his place of permanent residence or workplace, as well as when he is in a publically accessible place. Danger may still be low, but the inquisitiveness of journalist may quickly become overwhelming. Fans or supporters of a given sportsman or artist may cause havoc in order to touch their idol or get hold of any item belonging to him or her. Of course, there is also the risk of serious injuries or even death (let us take John Lennon as an example) – it cannot be neglected. That is why famous and popular individuals should by all means care about their safety. The matter also concerns politicians who are widely recognizable and controversial. In politics, there are no limitations. Opponents may even resort to killing a representative of the other side to impose his or her right on others. Elected politicians tend to have close protection, but care should be additionally exercised to care about those running in elections. Such VIPs may be ridiculed by the crowd or the opposition (by throwing eggs or pouring water over the candidate), leading to the end of their political career. The role of security guards should in the aforementioned cases not be limited to physical protection only. They must also keep information about VIP’s family, realized projects, and operation profile confidential. The image of a famous person highly depends on the bodyguards being in his immediate surroundings. The manner of their operation, professionalism, and knowledge are top priorities there.

Attack on person – By definition, attack on person is the attempt to kill someone, steal his or her possessions, as well as to kidnap him or her. The criminal action in question has a long history, as assaults have been made throughout the consecutive ages. Their goal has been to achieve a political, economic, or cultural aim. Attacks on person may lead to tremendous changes in the society, which is perfectly depicted by the killing of John Kennedy and Icchak Rabin. In the majority of cases, however, such an attack does not have significantly far-reaching consequences. In order to be effective, bodyguards must answer themselves the following questions – why do criminals attack? How do they attack? How may the assault look like? Therefore, it is highly advised to specify the motif, methods utilized, and consecutive stages of one and every attack on person. Taking into account motifs, one must bear in mind that all the assaults have their agenda. No attack is made voluntarily, without forethought. In the following sections, most common causes of the aforementioned activity are going to be enumerated:

Revolutionary or political ones – organized groups (frequently consisting of fanatics) attack others in order to force the society to change the existing system or overthrow the current government (in the attempt to choose a new one). Their victims are often the authorities ruling the country. The attackers, who follow their revolutionary or political agenda, try to win the sympathy of other representatives of the society. Long before the planned attack itself, they distribute leaflets blaming current rulers for the widespread injustice. According to their belief, the elimination of the elites in power would bring positive outcomes for the whole country. Such an action was performed in Armenia in 1999, where members of the government were shot dead during one of their meetings. The terrorists informed that their death would improve the national situation.

Economic – terrorists claim that their potential victim is responsible for the poor economic condition of the country, company, or a group of people. In the majority of cases, economic attacks take place in countries where there are extreme disproportions between the wealthy and the poor. It must be taken into consideration, however that it is not always the case, as the assessment of the attackers tend to be highly subjective. Quite frequently, the cause of the assault is the personal conviction that the unsatisfying economic condition of the terrorist is the result of actions performed by the victim. It pushes the attacker into thinking that killing him would aid the situation.

Personal – In this case, the wrongdoers are motivated to make an attack due to jealousy, vengeance or other personal causes. Those people in many cases have notable personality disorders, manifesting themselves especially in the inability to control their behavior. The aforementioned state also leads to the failure to distinguish reality from fiction. A perfect exemplification of the motif in question is shooting Zuzanna Leśniak and an artist – Andrzej Zaucha by Yves Goulais in 1991. The trigger there was jealousy.

Ideological – The terrorist is convinced that the victim chosen by him has been threatening the values and principles followed by the attacker. The said rules are often of significant importance for both the group he belongs to and for himself personally. Ideological attacks on a person may be religious or social in character. The first case is oriented towards killing a religious person in the attempt to make it impossible for him to achieve his goals. The second scenario relates to the willingness to eliminate the leader of a given social group. Quite frequently, the additional agenda is to make the organization the terrorist is a part of more memorable and popular in the media. Free publicity is an additional benefit then.

Psychological – The most commonplace group of attacks. Modern psychology claims that every person using firearms, stabbing others with a knife, or taking advantage of explosives has been struggling with mental problems. The motif is of negligible importance, as the attacker may justify his actions with revolutionary, economic, or personal goals, but the fact is that the driving force is the inability to perceive the world correctly. The assassination of Bill Clinton in 1994 illustrates the above bluntly. Francisco Martin Duran stated that he had attacked Clinton to destroy the mist connecting him to an alien entity. Apparently, Duran wanted to eliminate the mist in order to save the world. Attacks considered as crimes may be triggered by a myriad of factors. Among them,there are: - clashes between the representatives of a crime organization, willingness to demonstrate one’s power or threat the victim (attempt to force the latter to pay ransom or forget about debts), - desire to kill suspects that may endanger one’s business, - attempt to exert pressure on certain individuals or to threaten them for their professional achievements (relates to, inter alia, attorneys and tax collectors).

Attack methods to be considered by security guards. Close range attack. It may be performed by means of utilization of: - firearms, - melee weapon (knife, bayonet, dagger), - chemical substance (for example: toxic substance, such as hydrochloric acid). There are no exceptional skills needed to successfully attack a person, as almost everybody can use a knife or a dagger to a satisfactory extent. The same goes with firearms, the utilization of which is as difficult as driving a car. The aforementioned types of weapons can be transported to the place of the assault with ease. The characteristic feature of this attack type is the fact that the wrongdoer is situated maximally several centimeters away from the victim. The difficulty here is directly connected with the inability to improvise the act. It must be preceded by a prolonged observation of the subject, learning his or her customs, daily routine, places he or she visits, and the protection type he or she uses. Only after drawing proper conclusions from the examination, can the terrorist attack the victim. Marek Papała, a police commissioner, was killed due to a close range attack in 1998, Warsaw.

Long-range attack – in this case firearms are often used, especially rifles and carbines. It is not an uncommon situation to learn about an attacker who has used a sniper rifle fitted with professional laser and optical aiming devices. The distance between the wrongdoer and the subject of the attack is commonly higher than 5 meters. The former must also be much more skilled than a close range attacker, as he has to be capable of utilizing a professional gun in an effective manner. The death of John Kennedy in Dallas on 22nd November 1963 was the result of the attack form in question. Lee Harvey Oswald, who was a former marine soldier, shot his subject from a storage located several meters away from president’s cavalcade. To perform the act, he used Mannlicher-Carcano, cal. 6.5 mm rifle. The proficiency of the attacker was proven by the fact that he fired three shots and only one of them missed the target.

Attack with explosives – it requires notable skills, for the wrongdoers has to build a bomb before performing the attack. He must also know how and where to plant the explosive, how to situate the fuse inside and where to detonate it. Such a person also has to be familiar with the effects of explosion. Assault on Margaret Thatcher on 12th October 1984 showed how patient and clever can an attacker taking advantage of explosives be. Patrick Magee, a member of Irish Republican Army, moved into the hotel where the British prime minister was expected to stay 24 days before the said fact. Every single day, he worked meticulously destroying the wall and placing a 50-kilogram explosive inside the hole. The bomb was then fitted with a timer. It exploded when Miss Thatcher was considered to wash herself in the bathroom – the attacker was perfectly acquainted with her customs. She would have died if she had not received a document to be read. The explosive was detonated five floors above the bathroom located in the apartment of the „Iron Lady”. Six other people died as a result, but the suspect managed to avoid the clever assassination.

If you are looking to hire close protection in London do not wait and contact us immiedletly for professional bodyguard services in London.
submitted by closeprotections to u/closeprotections [link] [comments]


2020.09.11 23:35 500scnds [Table] r/Fantasy – I’m Marie Brennan, author of DRIFTWOOD and the Memoirs of Lady Trent. Ask me anything! (pt 1)

Source
The author included links to photos that she took as a bonus. Spoilers have been hidden on top of the post being marked as well. It is possible that the author is still answering late questions.
Questions Answers
What was the idea for the worldbuilding in the Lady Trent books, specifically how analogous a lot of the world is to mid 19th century earth. Any specific reason why it is made this way? This hybrid between high and low fantasy worldbuilding is something I don't think i have seen before. I'm certainly not the first person to do that kind of approach to the setting -- in fact, I think of it as the "Guy Gavriel Kay school of worldbuilding," though he's not the only one and probably also not the first. :-) In my case, it was because I wanted to be able to lean on the associations the reader has with the nineteenth century as a time of rapid scientific development (which was easier to do if the setting was more recognizable, rather than me just grafting nineteenth-century technology onto wildly different cultures), without locking myself into the specifics of a specific year and history. All the places Isabella visits are definitely based on a real region and culture, but -- to pick one example -- Othole, the continent that's most equivalent to "the New World," was never cut off from interaction with the "Old World" to the same degree. Which means there wasn't a massive die-off there like we had in real history when European diseases were brought to the New World, which in turn means there wasn't the same imbalance of colonization and the resulting slave trade from Eriga. That's a big example; smaller ones are things like "Vystrana is Romania, more or less, except their language is more Slavic and also they have Russian overlords right now, and also Finnish-style saunas." After all the rigorous period-specific research I did for the Onyx Court books, I liked the flexibility that came with not being tied to "okay, what exactly was happening in 1873?"
And I owe you a photo! Here's one from the Natural History Museum in London, which I think of as a cathedral to St. Darwin -- it's built much like a church, with a statue of Darwin where the altar would be, and absolutely COVERED in carvings of different animals: https://www.swantower.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/05/Natural-History-antelope-arches-1024x768.jpg
the below is a reply to the above
Thank you, I really liked it and it saves a lot of work that can be spent on painting the specific places better. Yeah, especially given that she travels so much. Though I do love being able to park a series in one location and develop it in depth; that's what I got to do with the Onyx Court books, and what Alyc Helms and I are doing with the Rook and Rose series.
the below question has been split into two, enumerated
Hi, Marie. Thank you for joining us. I have two questions for you, one about your process and a silly one: 1. What are the unique challenges in writing a scientist protagonist for a fantasy world? How difficult was it to come up with a field of fantasy science to underpin Lady Trent's research? I wouldn't say it was hard, exactly, because while Lady Trent's world isn't exactly ours, it also isn't full of magic -- it's of a type usually referred to as "Ruritanian," after (if I remember correctly), the invented European country The Prisoner of Zenda takes place in. So I could just write her more or less the same way I would a scientist protagonist in a historical fiction series. But I did put some amount of effort into handwaving the dragons enough for them to seem vaguely plausible -- and not just the dragons, actually; I also did research into the environments they live in, other creatures that inhabit those environments, etc. Savannah snakes are heavily based on cheetahs, for example. I figured, the science aspect wouldn't feel satisfying if it didn't feel at least somewhat solid.
2. If you could own a dragon, what is the ideal size and color of your perfect dragon? Green, definitely! A deep emerald green. Ideal size is a shape-changing dragon that can be big enough for me to fly on its back, but the rest of the time shrinks to the size of a housecat, with the appetite to match (so I don't need entire herds of cattle to keep it fed).
Photo: I have no idea why this dragon was on the corner of a building in Barcelona, but I approve of random dragon decorations! https://www.swantower.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/05/Barcelona4-LaRambla-dragon-close-1024x768.jpg
Thanks for coming to talk to us! I am really curious about your decision to make dragons more like a large wild animal, rather than the more mythical and magical beast most fantasy worlds have. What prompted your decision in this direction? Do you prefer dragon-rider or dragon-killer books when you read other works? (or maybe just dragon-leave-them-the-hell-alone) The origin of the idea for the Memoirs was looking at the D&D supplement The Draconomicon + the Dragonology calendar on my wall and thinking, "what if I ran a D&D game where instead of killing dragons and taking their stuff, you were there to study them?" It turned into novels instead of a game, but since I already had the notion of this being about field biology, that implied wild animals rather than sentient, magical creatures -- otherwise it would be more like anthropology, which is also a cool field (she said, having spent years in school studying that), but a very different kind of story.
As for your other question, I'll confess to being more fond of riding dragons than killing them. If I could go soaring through the skies atop a magnificent fire-breathing beast . . . I mean, yeah. :-D
Photo! I don't know if it's still there, but for a while the Tower of London had a dragon built out of weapons and armor. The shape of the room and the dim lighting made it stupidly hard to take a decent picture of it; this is the best I could manage: https://www.swantower.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/05/TowerofLondon-Keeper-head-1024x768.jpg
No real question, I just wanna say I love Lady Trent. I bought the first book when visiting a friend, finished the book the same day and ordered all the others right then. I love the books, they're done so well with a lot of attention to current issues mingled into the story, besides that I find (old) Lady Trent hilarious, I love her comments throughout narration. Actually, a possibly random question: is the cover art for sale(if you have knowledge of such things)? It would be perfect for my library/office! Thank you! Lady Trent was a blast to write. I tell people that when I finished the series, it felt like a good friend of mine was moving across the country. It wasn't like I'd never see her again, but we wouldn't be hanging out on a daily basis anymore.
And yes, the cover art is for sale! You have to scroll pretty far down to find the first one or Turning Darkness Into Light, and I don't see Tropic on there anywhere, but I bet if you contacted Todd you could work something out.
Edited: Oops, photo! This fellow was at the ruins of Ephesus, just doing his thing as we wandered through: https://www.swantower.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/05/Ephesus-sculptor-1-768x1024.jpg
Thanks for coming on. Who do you believe to be the best 3 fantasy authors working today? Ooof, that's not only a tough one but I think an unanswerable one -- it implies I'm able to read broadly enough (and currently enough!) in a genre that's getting ever more complex to be able to offer anything like an authoritative answer to that question. Instead I'll just name off three new-to-me authors I've really enjoyed in the last six months: S.A. Chakraborty (author of the Daevabad Trilogy, which is full of complicated djinn politics), Curtis Craddock (author of the Risen Kingdoms trilogy, with differently complicated politics around ancient sorcery + the discovery of new lands), and Henry Lien (author of the Peasprout Chen middle grade series about martial arts figure skating and, uhhh, more politics?, okay, I guess I'm enjoying that kind of thing right now).
Edited to add: for the photo, have Sravanabelagola, a Jain temple in Karnataka: https://www.swantower.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/05/Sravanabelagola-stairs-768x1024.jpg
I seem to remember that the lady trent was supposed to be 7 books? Am I right? What was the reason for making it shorter? Will you be writing more sequels to Turning darkness into light? What about the story of how lady trents son met his wife? That sounds like a really interesting story that is just hinted at in that book, I kept expecting it to be told but it never did. Thanks for writing great female main characters. Nope, it was planned from the start to be five! I felt like that would be a good length in terms of being able to send her to a variety of different places and showing the steps along the way to her big discovery, without trying to stretch it out too far.
As for whether there will be more sequels, heh. The first one took me by surprise, so when I say "I don't have any plans for another one," who's to say I won't be eating my words a year from now? As for the story of how Jacob met his wife, I actually wrote that as a snippet of flash fiction for my newsletter subscribers -- maybe at some point I'll post that to my site. The short form is that they met at sea (surprise!), when his future wife was doing astronomical research.
And since I just remembered I'd promised to post photos, here, have one of my favorite trees! This is "Old Veteran" in Point Lobos Park in Monterey, and the partial inspiration for the tree in an upcoming story of mine, "The City of the Tree": https://www.swantower.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/05/PointLobos-OldVeteran-768x1024.jpg
the below question has been split into three, enumerated
Before I ask a question, thanks a lot for the Lady Trent series! It was a delight to read. I also enjoyed you live-blogging your read/reread of the Wheel of Time, and your post-mortem of how to deal with the issues with long form epic fantasy that Jordan and Martin ran across. I have a few questions: 1. Do you have any recommendations for people who liked Lady Trent? I have read Temeraire, of course, which I think is an obvious recommendation, but I liked the discovery / pushing gender boundaries aspects of the series more than the dragons, and neither of those are present in Temeraire. It's lovely to know people enjoyed those posts! Recommendations: the ones that come to mind most recently are Curtis Craddock's Risen Kingdoms trilogy, which I've mentioned elsewhere in this discussion, and Marshall Ryan Maresca's Maradaine Constabulary trilogy, where one of the main characters is a woman trying to establish herself as a police inspector. The former has more of the discovery, while the latter has more of the gender struggle.
2. For someone who has only read Lady Trent (i.e. me), what part of your bibliography would you recommend next? Bibliography: the most natural step from Lady Trent is the Onyx Court series, since those are set in English history. But they're also more dramatic/serious in tone, and for all I know you like other kinds of fantasy, too. Driftwood is the new book, and puts some of my worldbuilding on display; the Varekai novellas are also rich on the worldbuilding front. The other stuff is a bigger step away, like the Wilders series is urban fantasy, or the Doppelganger books are back to secondary world, but more quest-y in some ways.
3. What are your opinions on cinematic/TV adaptations? Both, potential adaptations of your works, and adaptations of other people's work that are coming soon (Wheel of Time, Dune etc). Thanks for doing this AMA! Adaptations: I've got nothing against them! I tell people I'm too much of a folklorist to throw any stones about stories being retold in different variations. :-) It can be interesting to see what gets kept and what gets changed to suit the new medium, and certainly I love the sensory aspect of being able to see and hear the story. I'd have no objection if someone wanted to offer me money to adapt some of my work, though so far none of the queries I've gotten in that direction have solidified into anything real. (Alyc and I would give our left arms to see the Rook and Rose books adapted: they're incredibly well-suited to a Game of Thrones-style drama. HBO, call us!)
Photo: since we're talking a lot about books . . . one of the cool places I visited in Basel, Switzerland was the Papiermuhle or "paper mill" museum. I don't know why I uploaded such a small version of this photo, but here's a shelf of old books and a lantern they had set up in one room: https://www.swantower.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/10/Basel-Papiermuhle-books.jpg
the below question has been split into four, enumerated
Hi Marie, I've heard a lot of really glowing things about Driftwood and had the Lady Trent on my to read shelf for quite a while, but haven't gotten around to reading her adventures yet. I'll rectify that shortly. 1. Going by the synopsis of Driftwood: You get to mash-up two different fantasy worlds (that aren't yours), which two would produce the most interesting results? . . . what kind of interesting are we looking for? :-) I'd mash up two multiverse settings, like maybe Diana Wynne Jones' Chrestomanci series (which also connects to her book The Homeward Bounders) and, I dunno, Roger Zelazny's Amber or V.E. Schwab's Shades of Magic series or something. Anything where you've got conflicting multiverses ricocheting off one another is bound to be interesting.
2. Do you stick tightly to a meticulously plotted outline or do you place your characters in a world and let them do their thing? (It's kind of the literary version of nature versus nurture.) Hahahaha "meticulously plotted outline" oh man that's a good one. I usually have some notion of where the characters are headed in the end, but the path there, I figure out along the way. The main exception to that has been the Rook and Rose trilogy, because that one's co-written with my friend Alyc Helms, and it turns out that you can't rely on your fellow writer to telepathically read the nebulous cloud of story potential in your head. But even then, given that our last couple of weeks have been spent making outlines for the chapters ahead and then throwing them out . . . yeah.
3. Which of the countries you've traveled to have influenced a) you and b) your novels the most? For travel, I'd probably have to say London simply because I made four research trips there for the Onyx Court books, plus I've been there several other times, making it by far my most-visited locale (even more so if I count the rest of the U.K.). But I think everywhere I've gone has influenced me in one way or another: when Isabella goes into the swamps of Mouleen in The Tropic of Serpents, I'm drawing on my experiences in Costa Rica, etc.
4. Did you ever intend to utilize your PhD and or bachelor degree for a vocational purpose? Both sound like degrees you pursue out of passion, which I admire, but I'm curious. Thanks! And looking forward to the surprise picture! ;) I worked for a short time doing CRM (cultural resource management, aka contract archaeology), but that's the only time I've been formally employed outside academia in a fashion that relates directly to my field. Between you, me, and the rest of Reddit, I've never held a long-term non-academic job: only summer gigs and teaching, and now writing full-time. My original plan was to become a professor, though I wound up ditching that when my writing career got going.
Photo: The House of the Vestal Virgins in the Roman Forum, because I am a dyed-in-the-wool Latin nerd: https://www.swantower.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/05/Forum-House-of-Vestals-1-1024x536.jpg
the below is a reply to the above
Thanks for the intriguing and substantial answer! And between you, me, and the rest of Reddit, I think it's a good thing you've successfully avoided being chained to a corporate job, otherwise your answers in this AMA would probably have been way less multifaceted and interesting. ;) I've been incredibly lucky in that regard. And credit goes partly to my husband, whose tech career allows me to write without needing a second job: I make a decent living, but not one that would provide me with enough of a cushion for this to be my sole income without his support.
One of the things that I really liked about your books was how the characters reflected Victorian viewpoints (at least as well as I understand them). Lots of historically based books have characters in them that feel like modern characters with modern views teleported back in time. But in your books, even when characters were rebelling against aspect of Victorian society, they still felt to me like they were rebelling as members of that society and not from outside of it. How did you keep this up in your writing? Was it always something that you were aware of and working on as you wrote? Lots of research on the time in question? Lots of research, yeah. It helped that my previous series, the Onyx Court, was set in English history from the Elizabethan period up to the Victorian, so I'd spent several years marinating in the topic. I'm sure a real aficionado of the period could find plenty of places where it still feels modern, but I did my best to give the feel of the time -- especially when it comes to the question of rebellion. I very consciously did not want Isabella to just go "la, I don't care what anybody says!" and skip off to do her thing without any real pushback; I wanted to acknowledge the kinds of barriers real women scientists faced, and the strategies they used to work around those barriers.
Photo: here's a cool bit of art from the Poison Garden at Blarney Castle. The whole thing with the Blarney Stone may be totally cheesy, but the grounds of the castle turn out to have some amazing gardens! https://www.swantower.com/wp-content/uploads/2020/06/Blarney-glass-heads.jpg
the below question has been split into three, enumerated
Hello Marie, I am a huge fan of the Lady Trent series - it is one of the few book series I have followed as the books published each year and each book brings up its own memory from that point in my life. I would like to thank you for this wonderful series. I finally got around to Turning Darkness Into Light just last week (with some trepidation, given that this is not Isabella's story anymore) and finished it in two sleepless nights and simply loved it. Some questions I had: 1. While I greatly enjoyed TDIL, I did miss seeing dragons - was it a conscious decision to keep them completely out of the story? Will we get to see them soon in a different book from sometime else's perspective? It wasn't a conscious decision, no; just a consequence of the nature of that story. Because Audrey stays in Scirland the whole time, and the only dragons there are wolf-drakes or things in menageries, there wasn't a lot of opportunity. But I also figure, Audrey is a different person from her grandmother, and her attention is firmly on other matters. Like her father, she shares Isabella's intellectual drive, but nobody in that family aspires to follow in her exact footsteps. (She's much too difficult an example to live up to!) As for a future book, at the moment I have no plans for such a thing -- but given that I had no plans for TDIL either until suddenly I did, who knows. :-)
2. Do you have a dreamcast for the series if it were ever to be adapted (also, it seems crazy to me that people aren't lining up to adapt this into a movie series!)? I immediately latched on to Dame Maggie Smith as the narratopresent time Isabella. When the first book came out, I saw a number of reviewers saying they immediately visualized old Lady Trent as Maggie Smith, and my thought was "that's legit." :-) To the point where I told my amazing audiobook narrator, Kate Reading, to go ahead and channel her. I don't have a dreamcast, though -- I trust people whose job it is to do that sort of thing, and often TV shows or movies cast people I've never heard of who turn out to be perfect. People have shown interest in adapting it! But none of them have yet committed to that interest to the tune of giving me money. :-P
3. Favourite fictional dragon (s)? MALEFICENT ahem. Best Disney villain ever. For a non-villainous dragon, Toothless, who is apparently 1/3 dragon, 1/3 dog, and 1/3 cat.
Photo: this is an amazing ceiling from the gardens of Fukushu-en in Okinawa, which I may repurpose as a book cover someday: https://www.swantower.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/05/Fukushuuen-52-vortex-1024x756.jpg
Marie Ive had "A Natural History of Dragons" on my nightstand for inspiration for years! This is so exciting! Todd Lockwood's art hooked me, and then the story had me for the Long haul! Can you talk a little bit about how you differentiate between ideas you chose to pursue as projects, and those that need to be set aside or left behind? Hoooo, that's a good one! Some of it happens simply because of time limitation: I can't work on everything at once, so some things get put on a list to write later, and then when I come back to them sometimes I find they just aren't as shiny anymore. The strong ideas are the ones that still fire me up even after time has gone by. Though even then, I still don't throw anything out: sometimes I'll get invited to a themed anthology and one of those old ideas is the best-suited to the theme, so then I go to work punching it up into something cool. Or heck, "Vīs Dēlendī" spent something like a decade having no "there" there until I thought of cross-breeding my initial idea with a second concept; then I wrote an absolutely crappy version of the story; then I radically changed it and wrote a totally new story; now it's slated for reprinting in a Year's Best anthology!
But when it comes to novels, it's also not entirely in my hands. I've had several projects which my agent shopped around to publishers with no success, so into the trunk those go. Again, I might dust them off later, but for the time being my attention moves on to the next thing.
Photo: since we're talking about ideas that don't wind up coming to life, here's a grave from Highgate Cemetery in London: https://www.swantower.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/05/Highgate-sleeping-angel-837x1024.jpg
Hello Marie! Thank you for the AMA. I just have one question, although it might sound a bit silly. Why did you decide to name your protagonist Isabella? Apart from the Twilight saga, I haven't seen it in other works of fiction. Honestly? Random instinct. She was "Victoria" for approximately three paragraphs before my subconscious said "NO THAT ISN'T HER NAME SHE'S CALLED ISABELLA." (My subconscious is incredibly picky about names: the reason Michael Deven in the Onyx Court books is only ever called Deven is because I never did find the right first name for him.) People who know their nineteenth-century lady adventurers would be forgiven for thinking she's named after Isabella Bird, but the truth is that I didn't learn about her until I was partway through writing A Natural History of Dragons.
Photo: a partial reconstruction of a Roman pediment at Bath in England, with the missing bits filled in by ghostly light: https://www.swantower.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/05/Bath-baths-museum-pediment-1024x802.jpg
the below is a reply to the above
Thank you for your swift reply and for the picture! Archaeology is such a fascinating field. The reason I asked you about Lady Trent's name is because I have the same one and, after living my teenage years "plagued" by the ghost of Isabella Swan from Twilight, it was sooo nice and refreshing to read about such a cool character with whom I shared my first name! Not to mention that Lady Trent's journey as a scientist and researcher has been an important source of support and inspiration during my MSc (completely different field from dragons, though, haha!). So thank you for your work. Your books have brought a light into my life during some dark times. P.S. I completely understand the "picky" subconscious thing. I feel the exact same way when I have to choose a name for a character in one of my stories! Thank you again :-) Aha -- I'm so glad to have given you an Isabella you like better! And it's hugely touching to me that so many scientists, researchers, and academics have said this story speaks to them.
the below question has been split into four, enumerated
I absolutely loved Lady Trent and have been recommending it to everyone, so I have lots of questions. You can just pick your favorite if you don't have time for all of them. 1. One thing that I adored more than anything was how so many details tied together throughout the series, with one discovery built on another. How much of the overall series did you plot beforehand? Were characters like Suhail who didn't appear until later on planned from the beginning? I have essays on my site that might be of interest to you! "Concerning 'Lord Trent'" and "The Accidental Mr. Thomas Wilker."
As for the underlying questions: I knew at the start of the series what Isabella's famous discovery would be, and the general shape of her life, but a lot of the specific plotting happened along the way. (Embarrassingly, I didn't figure out what the big thing at the end of the fourth book would be until I was more than halfway through the fourth book . . . at which point it was blindingly obvious and I'm not sure how I didn't think of that years before.)
2. How do you approach relationships? (Platonic as well as romantic) I especially loved your enemies to friends relationship with Mr. Wilker, but the romantic relationships and other friendships were great as well. Relationships tend to happen more or less organically for me -- in fact, Tom was unusual in that I consciously designed him as a foil for Isabella. But since his actual role in the story wound up growing well beyond what I'd planned, it was still pretty organic! I'll know going into something that I want X to be the love interest or Y to be the rival, but the shape that takes get built out of the words that fall out of my fingers when I start typing. Aaron Mornett in Turning Darkness Into Light is another one who didn't go in the directions I expected.
3. What was it like writing a memoir style book where the narrator is reflecting on the circumstances from years down the road? What limitations and opportunities did it give you? Was it a harder sell to publish? The memoir approach was THE BEST DECISION I MADE ALL SERIES. :-D I'm not kidding: it gave me such an amazing toolkit for everything from exposition to foreshadowing to irony to characterization. I think the only significant limitation is one that doesn't bother me at all, which is that I've seen some readers complain that there's no tension because they know Isabella's going to survive. My answer to that is to ask them how many of the last hundred novels they've read feature the sole protagonist dying -- I'm going to bet, not many. It definitely gave me no trouble at all with my publisher; in fact, I think the narrative approach is part of what's made the series so engaging to readers.
4. How did you go about approaching all the cultures you wrote about? How did you approach writing a story from the (at least in our world) colonizer's perspective? Your last question is a complex enough one that we could spend an hour in actual conversation (i.e. not typing) just chewing it over. The short form is that I'm definitely drawing on my background in anthropology there, and this is one of the places where the memoir approach was an excellent tool: because the narrative is so explicitly placed as the story the character is telling to her audience, I think there's less risk of it feeling like the author shares her perspective. Older Isabella calls younger Isabella out on some of her errors, which creates space for the reader to then be critical of the things older Isabella still isn't aware of. And some of it was a worldbuilding thing, too; elsewhere in this AMA I mentioned changing some of the world conditions in ways that mean colonialism is still there, but less hellaciously imbalanced than it was in real history (e.g. there was no equivalent to the Atlantic slave trade). I think there's an important role for stories that explore those horrors, but there's also a role for stories that help us imagine a different reality.
Photo: Gyokusendo Cave in Okinawa, some parts of which are lit in a really interesting and beautiful fashion! https://www.swantower.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/12/Okinawa2017-OkinawaWorld-Gyokusendo-pool.jpg
the below question has been split into three, enumerated
Hi Marie! I've been raving about Driftwood ever since I got to read an advanced copy. It was absolutely amazing. 1. What can you tell us about the inspiration for Driftwood? Driftwood is, perhaps uniquely among my work, one whose origins I can't pin down. I know exactly when I wrote the first story, but where the idea for it came from . . . ? No clue. I can only tell you it was before I encountered Doctor Who as anything other than a name I'd heard floating around, so there's no connection there, though certainly some character resemblance between Last and the Doctor.
2. Spoiler questions about Driftwood: do you know why Last was able to survive the way he did? And do you know what happened to Last at the end? And if the answer to either of those is "yes," will you tell us? Nope! :-D I honestly do not know the answers to either of those questions. I have theories, but I will only ever nail them down if I come up with some story concept that requires it. And since my editor and I discussed whether this book should reveal why Last is the way he is, and we vehemently agreed that it shouldn't, I suspect it will remain a mystery.
3. You're trapped on a deserted island with three books. Knowing that you will be reading them over and over and over again, what three do you bring? Nnnnnnngaaaaaaaaugggghhhhhhh. I commission a publisher to produce an omnibus edition of the entire Lymond Chronicles, and also maybe the first eight volumes of Elfquest (up through Kings of the Broken Wheel), and then one book on survival and how to get off a deserted island.
Photo: a dwarf carved out of rock salt in the amazing abandoned salt mine of Wieliczka: https://www.swantower.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/05/Wieliczka-dwarf-1024x768.jpg
the below is a reply to the above
I only heard that Driftwood has a character that resembles The Doctor and I am 100% sold on Driftwood now. Have you watched Doctor Who since(at least part of it), if yes, what did you think and what is your favourite story, if not, do you plan to? I have watched it since then! Though I'm behind on the most recent stuff -- I've only seen the first season for Thirteen. My favorite part is the small daisy-chain of stories toward the end of Ten's run that all work with the question of how he grapples with immortality, because that's a topic I adore. (And then whichever special it was where the War Doctor looks at him and Eleven and calls them "the one who regrets, and the one who forgets.")
Photo: one glimpse of the truly breathtaking interior of La Sagrada Familia, in Barcelona: https://www.swantower.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/05/SagradaFamilia-interior-35-rose1-658x1024.jpg
In the Lady Trent series you begin your chapters with a list of topic points the chapter will cover. What was your inspiration in doing so? It's a thing you see sometimes in older books, so at first that was really just a way of adding to the period feel of the story. But I wound up enjoying it a lot, because while some of the topics are straightforward, others gave me a chance to slip in a bit of humor or misdirection or understatement. :-)
Photo: nothing like going to an overgrown Victorian cemetery in London (in this case, Brompton) a couple of days before Halloween and catching a raven perched atop a cross: https://www.reddit.com/Fantasy/comments/i9qapy/im_marie_brennan_author_of_driftwood_and_the/?sort=new
Hello, Marie! (It's YHL.) How do you know when a story is done incubating and you're ready to start writing words? Do you incubate stories at all? Or maybe you get hit by lightning and rush out to write the story! If you do incubate, what activities help you feed your Muse? (Yay Driftwood!) I do incubate stories! Though how long they incubate for is wildly variable. Turning Darkness Into Light charged headfirst from "idea" to "we're doing this" with basically no pause in between; most things sit around for months or even years between the concept and the execution. But in that gap, I often write at least a bit of the story to nail the idea down, and that usually starts happening when my brain begins spontaneously composing sentences for it. After that, if it's a novel it grows more when my agent and I agree that's the next thing I should shop around (whereupon I need a sample or a whole draft), and if it's a short story it grows more when I glance at my list of ideas/things in progress and it pops up as the one that says "me, me, pick me, coach!" (Or, recently, it falls out of my head when I finally get around to doing the research reading I've been putting off for umpty years and everything clicks into place.)
Photo: the ceiling of the baptistry in Florence is extra: https://www.swantower.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/05/Florence-Baptistry-ceiling-wide-1024x699.jpg
Forgot to answer the "feeding my Muse" part! A lot of it is reading: specific research for the story, or also just stuff in general, fiction and nonfiction both. I keep meaning to take the Clifton Strengths thing and find out just how high Input is rated for me. :-) Sometimes music helps, too, like the time my brain declared out of nowhere that the end of With Fate Conspire needed to feel like "Death Is the Road to Awe" from the score for The Fountain, and never mind that I had no idea what the PLOT of the ending was going to be. >_<
My overflowing TBR will not thank me for this question: What are your favourite scientific fantasy books? Any science as main focus. And maybe something specific to archeology if you have something. Honestly, nothing is leaping to mind! I haven't seen many books that are fantasy, but have science as the central focus. It's definitely an interest for one protagonist of Curtis Craddock's Risen Kingdoms trilogy (which I'm 2/3 of the way through), but the focus there is much more heavily on politics. Samantha Cohoe's A Golden Fury is about alchemy, which is about as close as I think I can come.
Archaeology . . . Tell your friendly neighborhood publisher to take a look at the proposal my agent sent out, like, last week.
Photo: This is a slide from the Oceanographic Museum in Monaco, which is a RIDICULOUSLY COOL place, and parts of it are deliberately still very Victorian in their setup: https://www.swantower.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/05/Monaco-MuseeOceanographique-slide-1024x683.jpg
the below is a reply to the above
If you like old style museum, have you visited the Galeriè de Paléonthologie et d'Anatomié comparée in Paris? It is a super cool museum, picture: Panorama of the contemporary exhibition hall And I am "pressing my thumbs"(an expression to wish good luck in German) for that proposal. oooOOOooo. :-D I have not been there! I will remember that the next time I get a chance, because heck yeah I'd be all over that!
How do you process/create your environment/worlds? To suit the characters or story or both, also how complete is the vision going into the writing process? It depends on the project, and it especially changes depending on whether I'm working on a short story or a novel -- unsurprisingly, a short story doesn't get as much development on that front! Most times it's a pretty organic process, though, rather than some kind of organized checklist. Both character and conflict ideas tend to show up with at least some amount of implied setting attached (e.g. I'm working on a short story idea right now whose two roots are in the Library of Alexandria and the Confucian examination system), and then my next step was to decide that this was probably in an environment closer to Egypt than to any part of China, which was enough for me to get started. But as I've been writing the story, I've made up all kinds of things about social structure and religion and so forth, developing those as I reach bits of the narrative where there's a need for some amount of detail on those topics.
That contrasts (somewhat) with how Alyc Helms and I approached preparations for the Rook and Rose trilogy. In part because that one's a collaboration, we did a lot more explicit planning ahead of time, especially regarding physical details like clothing and food, but also things like religion. Even there, though, we certainly didn't have everything decided ahead of time! For us, the world needs to be able to grow and shape itself around the story as well as the other way around -- that's part of the fun and excitement of creation.
I forgot to give you a photo! This is the labyrinth at St. Fin-Barre in Cork, Ireland; I chose it because the idea that Vraszenians (in the Rook and Rose trilogy) have labyrinths as a central feature in their religion was one of the ideas Alyc and I didn't develop until a good way into writing the first book: https://www.swantower.com/wp-content/uploads/2020/06/Cork2-labyrinth.jpg
Hello! Planning to get to your books soon, so this is a nice surprise. Why dragons? And what other books with magical creatures would you recommend?! Dragons are cool because they're flexible: a centaur is pretty much just that one thing, a Greek idea of a human grafted onto a horse body, but "big quasi-serpentine creatures" are found in many parts of the world. Which is useful when I want to be able to send my protagonist around to many different environments to study them! Centaurs would not do well in swamps, or on top of a mountain.
For a recommendation, these aren't animals, but both S.A. Chakraborty's Daevabad trilogy and P. Djeli Clark's upcoming A Master of Djinn do very cool things with the broad array of types and ideas that fall under the header of "djinn."
Edit: speaking of horses, I liked the staging of these two heads in the Louvre: https://www.swantower.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/05/Paris4-Louvre-horseheads-pair-768x1024.jpg
submitted by 500scnds to tabled [link] [comments]


2020.09.10 14:38 PaulChittenden From Plumbers Apprentice to $100 Million - 26 Business Lessons from an Expert Marketer (Conor McGregor)

Conor McGregor went from plumbers apprentice to making $100 Million. This is not all that surprising given he is a sports superstar.
What is surprising is that he did this in MMA, a sport that notoriously doesn't pay this kind of money.
In fact, McGregor's net worth is at least 3X that of his TOP peers in the sport. And if you look at the Top 15 highest-paid fighters in the UFC, three are only there because they fought McGregor.
Conor McGregor is surely a controversial character, but there are surely some business lessons to learn from his rise to fame. After studying his career and countless hours of video, here are 26 lessons I've learned from the man himself.

Lesson 1 - Find a Need in the Market that Needs Fulfilling

When Conor moved to a new suburb, he lost his group of friends and had to start over. As the new guy, he got in his share of fights. Without a group of friends to back him up, he needed to learn to fight so he could protect himself. With boxing training, any potential attackers might find themselves getting more than they’ve bargained for and decide to pick on an easier target.
Crumlin Boxing Club fulfilled that need for Conor, and initiated his journey to superstardom.
In business, you need to find a need with your particular audience. Fulfill that need and buyers will come to you.
Let’s take boxing gyms as an example.
In a rough neighborhood, you’ll find “real” boxing gyms. The boxers here come to learn how to truly fight and even compete.
In “upper-class” neighborhoods, you’ll find more cardio based boxing gyms. The goal at these gyms are more for exercise than actual fighting. You won’t see too many sparring sessions at these gyms.
Both models are successful. Understand your market.

Lesson 2 - Find Your Passion. Try new things

McGregor and Tom Egan, while opposites, met in high school both enjoyed MMA. They watched UFC broadcasts on weekends together. It was Egan who sparked Conor’s interest in MMA.
Conor started dabbling in both MMA and boxing, and eventually, left boxing for his true love of MMA. With this focus, Conor went on to dominate the MMA scene.
In business, even the best entrepreneurs can get burnt out. If you look at Elon Musk, Richard Branson, or Steve Jobs, they are all extremely passionate about what they do.
They can and do put in the hours to become the best in their niches. When they speak, you hear the passion and feel drawn to their cause.
It’s hard to be tremendously successful if you hate what you do.

Lesson 3 - Find a Mentor to Increase the Likelihood and Decrease the Time to Success

Although they were around the same age, Tom Egan made it to the UFC first. Conor saw his pal in the UFC, and knew that he had a chance too. The impossible became possible and no longer just a dream.
In business, you need to find a mentor who is ahead of you. Mentors can help you avoid big mistakes.
More importantly, mentors show you what is possible and can create a complete level change in your game.

Lesson 4 - Surround Yourself with People That Want You to Succeed & Will Support You. Stay Loyal to Them.

Dee Devlin has been by Conor’s side since the beginning. She supported him when he was a nobody.
She believed in him.
Dee experienced all of the ups and downs on the path to fame. They grew together.
When you become rich and famous, people try to take advantage of you. It becomes harder to find true friends and romantic partners. Conor avoided this and married the girl who helped him get to where he is now.
Let’s face it, some successful entrepreneurs did not have this support system. They were doubted, laughed at even. This doubt fueled their desire to succeed.
Even so, these entrepreneurs eventually built teams which were so inspired by the entrepreneur’s vision, they eventually do build these supportive relationships.
If you do have this support system, remember who was there supporting you from the beginning. True friendships are an important foundation for happiness as you become more successful.

Lesson 5 - Intense Focus on Your Craft Decide on What You Want and Put 100% Focus Into It

Not only did Dee Devlin give Conor emotional and moral support, she financially supported him as well. She waited tables so that Conor could focus 100% on his training. She helped him buy healthier foods to fuel his body.
Conor was naturally talented. Adding in 100% focus to his training allowed him to accelerate his skills much quicker.
Most people are juggling too many things. Spending hours playing Call of Duty, late nights drinking, dreaming instead of doing, are taking time away from honing your craft.
The best of the best are practicing. They are making sales calls. In the studio.
With 100% focus and persistence, you will eventually make it.

Lesson 6 - The Law of Attraction Visualizing Yourself to Greatness

Conor attributes the use of visualization and the Law of Attraction to manifest his way to becoming a champion.
This all sounds kind of crazy, but the same technique has been cited by Jon Jones and Ronda Rousey, plus dozens of athletes and mega celebrities including, Kobe Bryant, Cristiano Ronaldo, Arnold Schwarzenegger, Lindsey Vonn, Tony Robbins, Beyonce, Katy Perry, Will Smith, Lady Gaga, and Kanye West,.
What is the Law of Attraction?
The Law of Attraction is a belief that a person’s thoughts and focus bring positive or negative experiences into the person’s life.
Conor’s sister Erin, a bodybuilder and fitness model, recommended he read The Secret, a book on the Law of Attraction. He opted for the DVD version.
"Even when I first watched it, I was like, this is bulls--t," McGregor told Bleacher Report in 2015.
But after watching it, something clicked. Conor and Dee started using it to visualize little things, like getting the front parking spots. After seeing it work, he went on to visualize himself as a champion. In fact, his family credits the moment he watched The Secret, as the birth of Conor McGregor, the superstar.
Stop thinking small. Dream big!

Lesson 7 - Fight IQ Get a Deep Understanding of Your Competition

In his first UFC post fight interview, he clearly said that he thought Brimmage was emotional and would overthrow his shots. Conor fully understands there is the game before the game.
McGregor’s fight IQ is off the charts.
All fighters watch films of previous fights. Try to find subtle tells. They begin each fight carefully, trying to figure out distance and timing.
Watching Conor, it almost looks intuitive. It seems that he knows his opponents better than they know themselves.
This is most evident after the Aldo fight. Video is released of McGregor practicing the exact sequence that dispatched the 10-year winning streak of the champion.
After the fight, Conor said he saw a subtle tell before the bell rang. Aldo’s right hand was twitching. He knew Aldo was going to unload a big right hand that would set up his left hand knockout punch. Seriously, watch the video below. Mystic Mac believes in the power of visualization.
Know your competition. You can outsmart them. Be faster. Have better customer service. Be good where they suck.

Lesson 8 - Be an entertainer. Stand for Something. Be Polarizing. People Will Love You or Hate You & That’s Not Bad.

Dana White knew Conor McGregor was going to be a star the very first time they met. Why?
Dana said it was his personality. His laugh.
What else is underneath this?
Conor McGregor had a clear focus to become UFC Champion and become rich and famous. He had an outlandish personality. He was witty. He would entertain the masses.
I’ve never met Conor McGregor in person, but from most reports from fans and casuals alike, McGregor is a completely different person outside of the ring.
A nice and pleasant guy.
Is the UFC Conor McGregor just a persona?
Who else had success in the UFC with an outlandish and polarizing personality?
The WWE has perfected this character. They call them the heel. Conor McGregor may or may not be the heel, but he definitely is polarizing, and he is very much like a WWE character.
Love him or hate him, every MMA and boxing fan knows Conor McGregor.
Like the greatest before him, McGregor knows that almost any attention is good attention.
Step into the MMA forums or a Facebook discussion, and you will see the Conor McGregor haters out in full force.
But guess what, his haters still buy his PPV fights - to see him lose!
If you want to be a public figure, amplify your message. Take who you are, and multiply that by 3X or 10X.
Sure, you want to be authentic. Don’t be someone you’re not. But take it up a notch.
Be exciting. Be an entertainer.

Lesson 9 - Find Your 1000 True Fans Cater to Your Base

In his first UFC fight, Conor is seen with an Irish flag draped over his shoulders as he walks to the ring. Before he was a worldwide superstar, Conor worked to become the ambassador of Irish MMA.
In fact, as his stardom grew, it seemed half of Ireland would travel to his fights.
The UFC, having dominated the American MMA market, was ready to move into Europe, and Conor McGregor would carry the entirety of Ireland.
Kevin Kelly, editor at Wired magazine, wrote an essay called “1,000 True Fans.” The essay, a must read, states that all it takes to earn a living as creator is 1,000 true fans who will buy your work.
For McGregor, his fanbase started with his countrymen. As his stardom grew, so did his base of fans.
In business, you have to find your core supporters. The people who will buy your product. The people who will share your content. The people that love your product or service so much they have to tell their friends about it.
Find your Ireland and grow from there.

Lesson 10 - Fighting is a Mind Game Discover Your Opponent’s Weaknesses

Conor McGregor is a master of getting inside his opponent’s head. Often, his opponents become emotional and abandon their game plan or overextend their shots.f
Many fighters talk trash. Many fighters try to intimidate their opponents. They may even come close to actually fighting during staredowns. But - they don’t completely destroy 8 weeks of game planning the way Conor does.
Before the fight with Dustin Poirier, McGregor said:
Just as he says, he defeats Poirier by KO in the first round. Mystic Mac is born.
Dustin Poirier is an amazing fighter. As a fellow Louisiana boy, he’s one of my favorites.
I don’t believe that Dustin was beat in the ring. He was beaten before the fight.
McGregor baited him. Made him angry. Dustin Poirer didn’t follow his game plan.
Conor’s remarks that this is just a game really sums it all up. After the Dustin Poirier fight, we see McGregor take his head games up a notch. The best example is the fight with Aldo.
Aldo went 10 years without a defeat. Fighters were afraid of him.
After defeating Dennis Siver, McGregor jumps the Octagon fence and goes straight for Aldo, showing he has no fear of the champion.
The pre-fight insults from McGregor are being hurled at unprecedented speed - expletives, racist comments, attacking the entire Brazilian nation. But when McGregor steals Aldo's belt, there is one moment when you see the look of defeat on the Brazilian's face.
McGregor raises his hands as if he already knows he’s the champion. Aldo, unable to do anything in the moment, mentally breaks. Maybe it was just a seed of doubt, but McGregor was in his head.
As a small brand, sometimes going after the big guys can be tough. Study your competitor. Find out what they do well and where they are lacking.
No one is perfect. Focus on your competitor's weaknesses. Fill those gaps. Be nimble. Slowly take market share by doing what they cannot.

Lesson 11 - Differentiation - Discover What Sets You Apart from the Crowd

Conor had big dreams. He was already visualizing himself as a massive star. A rich, popular, double champ at that.
How would the double champ act? What would he look like? How would he speak?
Rumors were going around that McGregor was getting easy fights. Maybe it was true. The UFC was investing in his brand to grow the European market. They didn’t want their golden boy to lose yet.
I cannot confirm this through any research, but I’m sure Conor was aware of the UFC’s plans and his role in them.
Instead of denying the matchmaking, McGregor doubles down and talks about his relationship with Lorenzo (one of the owner’s of the UFC). In fact, they even have a tradition of toasting a shot of whiskey after McGregor’s wins.
McGregor has gone from plumber’s apprentice to UFC star. His Lorenzo comments are positioning him as the employee who is winning and dining with the CEO. Isn’t this the dream of all employees?
Go back to the beginning of Conor’s Instagram. It quickly goes from typical fighter to businessman and luxury everything - clothes, cars, private jets.
He dons his trademark suits.
Conor is no longer just a fighter. He’s the guy from the rough neighborhood that made it.
He’s transcended fighter status. He’s different.
In business, marketing and positioning are the key to market domination.
Your brand, your image, your packaging, your customer service. Are they aligned with your target market?

Lesson 12 - Understand the Machine that Drives Your Industry

McGregor worked hard to build his personal brand. He built his profile, entertaining the masses and winning in spectacular fashion.
Winning fights gets better fights. But have you noticed that some fighters keep winning but aren’t given a main event? Maybe they are passed over for a title shot?
Why?
McGregor understood the game. He dove into the machine head on, realizing that putting up big numbers gets you bigger opportunities.
More than anything, the UFC organization is a promotion and hype machine. The UFC’s job is to sell fights, build storylines, and develop fighters.
Conor understands this. He has fully leveraged the UFC’s marketing powers to 10X his brand. He layers his own marketing on top of the UFC’s efforts.
McGregor took chances. He talked smack. He manufactured beef / rivalry. He won his fights in spectacular fashion, and he built his social media empire to engage his fans.
The UFC brass see this. They know his popularity is growing, so they put even more dollars behind him to promote him. He coaches on the Ultimate Fighter Season 22 against Urijah Faber (another very popular fighter). He gets more popular. He pulls bigger numbers. It’s a never ending cycle for now.
With fame and celebrity comes opportunities. Big names pull big money. Bigger purses. Bigger sponsorship deals. And other opportunities outside the ring.
What is the machine behind your industry? Determine how the big boys in your industry are winning.
Is it their sales team? Is it paid ads? Is it media coverage?
Deconstruct the winners and find your way in.

Lesson 13 - When Opportunity Presents Itself, Take Your Shot

When Aldo was injured, Mendes stepped in on 3 week’s notice to fight for the interim title.
Both McGregor and Mendes saw the opportunity, McGregor, an interim belt and Mendes the belt plus a McGregor payday,
While this happens all the time, it is a risk. McGregor was preparing for a different fighter. Mendes didn’t have a full training camp.
In business, opportunities can present themselves at any time. It is up to you to see them and capitalize on them.
“If somebody offers you an amazing opportunity but you are not sure you can do it, say yes - then learn how to do it later.” - Richard Branson

Lesson 14 - Precision Beats Power, Timing Beats Speed

A fighter studies their opponent to understand their movement, any tells, and potential holes in their game. Conor does this exceptionally well.
In my first few sparring sessions, my biggest surprise was how fast the more advanced fighter's were. Not their hand speed. It was how fast their mind worked. They saw my punches coming almost before I threw them. They were able to move out of the way and counter with ease. They saw something I didn't see.
A fighter with a high fight IQ has:
So far, Conor's only hole is his ground game. Standing up, he has the upper hand. After the Aldo fight, he said this:
This quote is a great way to think about business.
Precision beats power. Oftentimes, you are competing with the big boys, the entrenched competitors, or the huge multinational corporation. They have power.
A smaller business can compete with precision. You can serve the customer better. You can offer a more personalized service. You can serve in a profitable capacity, that the big boys are ignoring because it is too small for them. Be precise.
Timing beats speed. Being first to market can help you get first crack at market share, maybe even give you time to build a moat. Yet, timing beats speed. Sometimes it is better to let the first mover establish a market before moving in. You’ll save all the cost of developing the market, and you can learn from their mistakes. Time the market.

Lesson 15 - See the Opportunity & Ask for What You Want

At this point, Conor McGregor basically gets whatever fight he wants. However, Lesson 15 flips the script. This isn’t about McGregor. It is about Nate Diaz.
After Nate Diaz defeated Michael Johnson at UFC Fox 17, he stepped up to the mic and called out Conor McGregor in an expletive filled rant.
This takes us back to another infamous McGregor press conference with reference to “Red Panty Night.”
Conor McGregor brings in huge paydays, and he says a fight with him is cause for celebration. Fighters will make more fighting him than any other fighter on the roster.
Diaz understood this. He saw the opportunity. And he asked for it.
Diaz’s first fight with Conor McGregor earned him 4X what he made for his previous second highest grossing fight.
The second fight went on to earn him more in one night than he made his entire UFC career.
Then, his rise in popularity has earned him a noticeable bump in his post McGregor fights.
What can we learn from this? Too many people can spot the opportunity, but don’t have the balls to go for it.
Ask for the meeting.
Ask for the sale.
“You miss 100% of the shots you don’t take. - Wayne Gretzky

Lesson 16 - Rivalries are Opportunities

Nate Diaz was no match for Conor McGregor’s verbal sparring as seen in several pre-fight interviews. But Nate Diaz has his own Stockton “Gangsta” style of dealing with rivalries that fans love.
After Conor shows up 30 minutes late, Diaz walks out. Diaz’s team throws a water bottle. Things get out of hand.
Rivalries can be great marketing opportunities. This clash no doubt sold more PPV’s.
Take a look at Wendy’s taking a shot at McDonald’s on Twitter.
Look at the number of Retweets. Holy crap.
Have some fun. Maybe a rivalry is just the PR stunt you need.

Lesson 17 - Do Not Succumb to Failure. Learn from Your Mistakes. Pivot.

Mcgregor lost to Diaz in their first matchup by submission. Conor analyzed his mistakes in training and particularly his diet.
He put these learnings to use in their second matchup.
Conor came back and won their second fight by decision, in a grueling 5 round matchup.
In business, we experience failures just like in life. Markets change, regulations change, and unprecedented events such as Covid can derail our plans.
You need to be okay with failure. But don’t let a failure go to waste.
Analyze it. See what when wrong. Find out how you could have changed things. Make a plan not to make that mistake again.
Maybe you need to pivot. Maybe you just need to make some tweaks. Either way, a failure can make your business stronger, if you implement the changes necessary to ensure that it doesn’t happen again.

Lesson 18 - Make History Change the Game

In the lead up to the fight with Alvarez, a promo is released, and we hear Conor Mcgregor say:
There has not been a UFC champion in two weight classes at the same time. McGregor was gunning to go down as the first in the UFC record books.
At the same time, he would make history as headlining the first MMA fight in Madison Square Gardens. It was truly a historic moment in the world of MMA.
Riches, fame. It means nothing in the end.
But, history?
And just like the story of Roger Bannister and the four-minute mile, Conor opened up the door for other champ champs - Daniel Cormier, Amanda Nunes, and Henry Cejudo.
Too many entrepreneurs are doing “me-too” business. Chasing successful businesses in hopes of making some cash.
The true game changers are going big. Trying to change history.
Truly think about what you can do to change the industry, to innovate, to do the impossible.

Lesson 19 - Leverage Other People’s Audiences

Back in 2015, Conor McGregor and Urijah Faber were announced as coaches on the Ultimate Fighter reality show contest.
The same year, video surfaced of a sparring session between Game of Throne’s “The Mountain”
Each of these appearances allowed Conor to utilize other people’s audiences (OPA) to gain additional fans outside of his current fan base.
The UFC’s Ultimate Fighter series brought in the series’ fans plus fans of Urijah that may not have been fans of Conor and gave them a chance to get to know him over multiple exposures (episodes).
The playful sparring session with The Mountain allowed Conor to gain exposure to the Game of Throne’s audience who followed Hafþór Júlíus Björnsson. He’s appeared on the cover of GQ and appeared on the cover of Call of Duty Infinite Warfare.,
McGregor has also had appearances on Conan O’brien’s Late Night and has sung pub songs with Jimmy Fallon.
Speaking of Conan, did you know 23 celebrities own shares in the UFC? Here they are:
Now this is a genius move by the UFC. By allowing celebrities to own a piece of the UFC, the UFC knows that they will promote the business to their following, bringing in additional fans that would not normally be watching.
McGregor’s biggest example of leveraging other people’s audiences is his crossover fight with Mayweather. Mayweather is boxing’s greatest fighter ever. Not only does Mayweather have a huge audience, this fight would introduce Conor McGregor to the entire boxing audience.
No matter your industry, you need to know where your customers are. Who has a similar pool of leads in their audience?
Partner with another complimentary company that shares your audience.
Get a story written about you and your company in your industry’s magazine.
Go where the fish are, but fish with dynamite.

Lesson 20 - Know Your Numbers What is the Most Profitable Thing in Your Business?

At this point, Conor McGregor is the highest paid fighter in UFC history.
Yet, he is making peanuts compared to the big names in boxing.
Conor realizes this and guns for the biggest name in boxing, Floyd Mayweather. If he can make this happen, it will be the biggest payday in his career.
Similarly, you need to understand your own numbers. Where is the money?
What product lines are the most profitable? What are the least?
Make decisions based on numbers.

Lesson 21 - Negotiating Like a Pro Keep it Win-Win, and Give to Get

How do you get the biggest name in boxing, arguably the best boxer to ever step into the ring, to agree to a fight with an MMA fighter who has never professionally boxed?
You need to understand what the other party wants. Not just on the surface. What they truly want.
What would Mayweather possibly want?
  1. Money - Mayweather likes to spend money and is rumored to have financial troubles.
  2. Vanity - Mayweather wants to keep his undefeated record untarnished.
  3. Cash Flow - Mayweather wants big fights. At 43, the window of opportunity is slowly closing.
When Mayweather fought Pacquiao, the purse was split $180 million for Mayweather and $120 million for Pacquiao, according to Kurt Badenhausen.
Big number for sure. What could Conor offer? He has a big name, but he’s not Manny Pacquiao.
Money: Conor offers a better split of revenues. Reportedly, Mayweather took in $500 million with Conor only taking $100 million.
Vanity: On paper, this fight should be the least risk for Mayweather. Sure, Conor has a monster left hand, but he’s not a professional boxer. Mayweather believes he will retain his record.
Cash Flow: McGregor offers to promote the hell out of this fight. With Mayweather believing he has no chance of losing, he also retains his record, assuring he can continue to get big money fights.
Let’s face it. Conor couldn’t lose. Losing to Mayweather in a boxing match doesn’t hurt his brand at all, and he comes away $100 million dollars richer and an even bigger brand.
The secret to negotiating is to have a deep understanding of what the other party wants.
Make the deal win-win. If the other party has massive leverage or if the deal could be a game changer for you or your business, don’t be afraid to give them more.

Lesson 22 - Spend More Time on Promotion

MMA training takes a considerable amount of time.
MMA fighters train in multiple disciplines, lift weights, and do a ton of cardio. They also need time to sleep and recover.
With all this training, how do you even have time to promote the fight?
Still McGregor has taken time to make appearances, go on press tours, television, podcasts, and more.
A lot of fighters hate promoting. It takes time away from the things they need to do to prepare for a fight.
No matter how hard it is, promotion is key to becoming a big name in the sport.
This is great advice, especially for creatives. Creatives spend so much time producing work. It seems productive, but you need to spend equal time promoting.

Lesson 23 - Diversify You Need Multiple Revenue Streams

As in most professional sports, MMA fighters take a brutal toll on their bodies. It is hard to determine the average fighter’s career length, but the 9-year rule, stating that fighter’s start to decline around the 9-year mark, is a good indicator.
This means that most fighters only have 10 years to maximize their career earnings in the sport.
McGregor has done this through sponsorships:
He has a residency deal with the Wynn Las Vegas for his post fight after parties.
He owns digital properties selling workouts (McGregor FAST Program), emojis (MacMoji App), the MacTalk App, and the everything McGregor and MMA website, the Mac Life. All of these generate additional revenue.
Then like a true Irishman, he started his own line of whiskey, Proper 12, just in time before the biggest fight of his MMA career against Khabib Nurmagomedov. In a genius move, McGregor sponsored his own UFC fight to promote his new whiskey. The brand has reportedly brought in $1 billion in sales in its first year.
Changing markets, the economy, or a pandemic can all change everything in an instant. It is important to have multiple revenue streams to both maximize revenue generation opportunities and safeguard you from a change in circumstances such as a lay-off.
Side Hustles are becoming more and more popular!

Lesson 24 - There is No Such Thing as Bad Publicity

Conor McGregor and his team’s bus incident ignited a flurry of bad press. A string of bad publicity follows. Let's take a quick look at the Google trends for Conor Mcgregor searches over time:
There are 12 peaks indicating high searches:
  1. Becomes Cage Warriors Double Champ (& tweeted by Joe Rogan)
  2. McGregor vs Mendes (& interviewed on Conan)
  3. McGregor vs. Aldo
  4. McGregor vs. Diaz I
  5. McGregor vs. Diaz II
  6. McGregor vs. Alvarez
  7. McGregor vs. Mayweather
  8. McGregor Bus Incident
  9. McGregor vs. Khabib
  10. Accusation of Sexual Assault
  11. Mcgregor Bar Fight
  12. Mcgregor vs. Cerrone
Numbers 8, 10, & 11 are all bad press.
But an old saying by P.T. Barnum rang true.
The fight with Khabib went on to become the biggest fight in UFC history.
Now the saying isn’t 100% true, we’ve all seen bad press sink a company, but let’s be real, this is the fight game. The fans secretly loved it. Come on, he’s a fighter. We expect this.
Bad Publicity can actually help smaller brands, as it still gets eyeballs on the product, service, or person. The strategy definitely has some risks, but we’ve seen some major brands built with bad press (think Kim K’s sex tape).
However, larger brands can lose a lot of business with bad press.

Lesson 25 - Forward Momentum Propels You Forward Choose Your Battles Wisely

After a long lay-off between the Khabib defeat, Conor needs to win a big fight to get back in title contention.
Donald Cerrone is a great matchup. It is a fight he is expected to win as he is a -300 favorite according to oddsmakers. Plus, Cerrone is one of the most entertaining fighters to watch with his stand and bang style.
McGregor’s quick win over Donald Cerrone provides him with forward momentum once again and vaults him right back into title contention.
Look for little wins. Forward momentum propels you forward, boosts your confidence, and reinvigorates your motivation.
Set goals. Blast them. Keep moving forward.

Lesson 26 - Be Willing to Walk Away if the Deal Isn’t Right

At this point, McGregor wants a big fight.
A rematch with Khabib, a contender’s fight against Gaethje, or a spectacle with either a Diaz trilogy or the BMF holder, Masvidal.
No other fights really make sense right now.
Maybe Conor will take a rematch with Floyd Mayweather or perhaps the talks about Pacquiao are true. Who knows.
Without the right match on the table, Conor decides to sit on the sideline until the right deal is presented.
Sometimes it is better to walk away and keep your stock high than to take a bad deal.

Bonus Lesson 1 - Take Care of Your Body & Mind

As an elite athlete, surely Conor McGregor is in great shape. Yet, it was a story about Lebron James that changed his entire outlook on training and mindset.
Lebron reportedly has a cadre of trainers, biomechanists, massage therapists, nutritionists, and personal chefs that have all contributed to his longevity in the sport. He does cryotherapy and spends time in the hyperbaric chamber. It was even reported that Lebron took ballet classes to help with his footwork.
He spends roughly $1.5 million a year on his body.
After McGregor read this, he knew he had to invest in his own body.
It seems he also worked with Tony Robbins, the ultimate life coach, to help with his mental state.
Work, Sleep, Family, Fitness, or Friends. Choose three.
The above is a running joke in the startup world. It is hard to juggle everything when you’re busy trying to change the world.
Physical fitness and mental health are extremely important. Keep in shape and you’ll be more productive, have more energy, and be able to think more clearly.

Bonus Lesson 2 - Develop Unbreakable Confidence

Conor McGregor exudes confidence. While all professional athletes share this trait, Conor’s confidence is off the charts even for professional athlete standards.
A lot of people mistake McGregor’s confidence for arrogance. Understandably so.
Yet, Conor believes what he is saying.
I’ve watched countless hours of pre-fight interviews of both Conor and other fighters. Conor McGregor has absolute certainty he is going to win.
Other fighters also believe they are going to win. However, you can see faint tells, twitches, micro expressions, or even vocal uncertainties in their responses. Subconsciously, somewhere deep down, the fighter has doubts. Doubts in themselves and doubts in their abilities.
This is not evident anywhere in Conor McGregor’s UFC career. This does put the Tony Robbins coaching into perspective. DId Conor need help getting his confidence back after he was defeated by Khabib? Tony Robbins would be the guy to get your mojo back!
I believe there are two main drivers to success in business:
  1. Believing in yourself
  2. Having something to prove
Confidence gets you on the road to success. If you believe in yourself, you’ll be willing to take the chance at greatness.
On the flip side of the coin, there is one group of people with low confidence that also have the ability to make it big - someone who is determined to prove their worth. These people are so determined to be successful their lack of confidence does not scare them away. Slowly, they become confident along the way.

Bonus Lesson 3 - Be Grateful

The one thing that surprised me in the research for this article was how grateful he is for everything he has accomplished.
Conor Mcgregor, an international sports legend with $100+ million dollars. A man that could have anything he wants. And he is truly grateful for his success.
No matter your success in life, this one is the key. No amount of money will ever make you happy. But gratitude - for your family, your friends, your lifestyle, for every little positive thing in your life that you take for granted, that is the real key to success and happiness.
If you enjoyed this, the full article can be found here.
submitted by PaulChittenden to EntrepreneurRideAlong [link] [comments]


2020.09.08 17:07 intellectualgulf The Miseducation of the American People

This is a theory that I will be working on until I figure out if it is accurate or not. Y'know, how the scientific process is supposed to be applied.
The theory is this: The american people have been purposefully miseducated for generations and the bizarre backwards behavior we see today is a symptom of this miseducation.
Whether or not the GOP is mainly responsible, whether this miseducation was politically aligned / inspired seems like a very important question given Nixon's presidency. Nixon is however just a symptom of a disease, and that disease is misinformation. The miseducation of the American people has been occurring for at least 100 years, but most likely has been ongoing since the founding of the country. Unfortunately freedom of speech protects liars, but that is the price we pay for democracy.
Misinformation is a human disease, and is directly responsible for the deaths of hundreds of thousands of American citizens in 2020 alone. Trump appointed Jared Kushner, an uneducated unqualified man, to lead a Covid Task force AND Jared Kushner showed why being uneducated is dangerous, since he decided Covid would magically hurt democrats more than republicans.
I appear to be picking on Trump, but my theory is that conservatives of every color are to blame for this miseducation. It may be unfair to lay the blame entirely at the feet of conservative political parties, but we still can't have rational public debates about social policy without one of the miseducated screaming about communism.
The average american has no idea what socialism is and only vaguely understands it to be a dangerous / bad system of governance that opposing superpowers have historically claimed to follow. https://www.pewresearch.org/politics/2019/10/07/in-their-own-words-behind-americans-views-of-socialism-and-capitalism/
The issue with this miseducation is it prevents reasonable logical debate. Of course any purely socialist society would fail, we are not a cooperative species. Any "true" form of government will fail when applied to humans because we are not rational or logical animals. We will inevitably smear everything in sight with feces and claim we have improved the world.
Miseducation has led to the average american not understanding how governments function at a fundamental level. A government is a group of people who agree to a set of rules that direct acceptable or unacceptable behavior, who organize around these rules, and who contribute resources to the group fund to support the enforcement of those rules. Every government is socialist since the definition of socialism is group ownership, and democratic governments are group owned. All guaranteed services provided by a government are group owned, and anyone who claims the government should not provide guaranteed services should leave since that is exactly what our founding fathers wanted it to be.
I'll repeat that last bit for clarity, the founding fathers intentionally created a group owned government to provide guaranteed services which include the postal service. If you consider yourself an "American" and believe that privatizing government services is a good idea, then you do not understand your government. This is reasonable given that many people were taught complete falsehoods before the internet came along, and many more falsehoods have been propagated by charlatans via the internet.
The only reason we can even tell that a massive amount of miseducation occurred in the United States is because so many of those people are very loud. The internet acts as a permanent record, and despite active revisionism / ongoing miseducation it still provides a clear view of the miseducation.
Each administration that chooses to use misinformation as a political weapon / tool ultimately damages the United States of America as they progressively weaken the citizens faith in truth. The american people at this point in time continue to act illogically despite access to the entirety of human knowledge at their fingertips. This is because the average American has been taught that Science and truth are not the same, and that "science" cannot be trusted to protect their interests. It does not matter that "their interests" are given to them by politicians who have shown an inability to think rationally or scientifically, since this is what they have been taught to accept.
This is yet another symptom of the disease, as people who otherwise are not mentally deficient make completely irrational or illogical choices / behaviors, such as continuing to elect corrupt and incompetent leaders.
The claims by Trump and other "modern" conservatives that the United States is or ever was intended to be a Christian nation is common. It really shouldn't be commonly held or believed since it is patently false, but it is another symptom of the disease of misinformation which is propagated in the United States through miseducation.
Data Sources
Statistics in the U.S. Department of Education: Highlights from the Past 120 Years
https://nces.ed.gov/pubs93/93442.pdf
US Department of Education website
https://www2.ed.gov/about/overview/fed/role.html
History
The original Department of Education was created in 1867 to collect information on schools and teaching that would help the States establish effective school systems. While the agency's name and location within the Executive Branch have changed over the past 130 years, this early emphasis on getting information on what works in education to teachers and education policymakers continues down to the present day.
The passage of the Second Morrill Act in 1890 gave the then-named Office of Education responsibility for administering support for the original system of land-grant colleges and universities. Vocational education became the next major area of Federal aid to schools, with the 1917 Smith-Hughes Act and the 1946 George-Barden Act focusing on agricultural, industrial, and home economics training for high school students.
World War II led to a significant expansion of Federal support for education. The Lanham Act in 1941 and the Impact Aid laws of 1950 eased the burden on communities affected by the presence of military and other Federal installations by making payments to school districts. And in 1944, the "GI Bill" authorized postsecondary education assistance that would ultimately send nearly 8 million World War II veterans to college.
The Cold War stimulated the first example of comprehensive Federal education legislation, when in 1958 Congress passed the National Defense Education Act (NDEA) in response to the Soviet launch of Sputnik. To help ensure that highly trained individuals would be available to help America compete with the Soviet Union in scientific and technical fields, the NDEA included support for loans to college students, the improvement of science, mathematics, and foreign language instruction in elementary and secondary schools, graduate fellowships, foreign language and area studies, and vocational-technical training.
The anti-poverty and civil rights laws of the 1960s and 1970s brought about a dramatic emergence of the Department's equal access mission. The passage of laws such as Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972, and Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 which prohibited discrimination based on race, sex, and disability, respectively made civil rights enforcement a fundamental and long-lasting focus of the Department of Education. In 1965, the Elementary and Secondary Education Act launched a comprehensive set of programs, including the Title I program of Federal aid to disadvantaged children to address the problems of poor urban and rural areas. And in that same year, the Higher Education Act authorized assistance for postsecondary education, including financial aid programs for needy college students.
In 1980, Congress established the Department of Education as a Cabinet level agency. Today, ED operates programs that touch on every area and level of education. The Department's elementary and secondary programs annually serve nearly 18,200 school districts and over 50 million students attending roughly 98,000 public schools and 32,000 private schools. Department programs also provide grant, loan, and work-study assistance to more than 12 million postsecondary students.
When formulating this theory I was focused on education in the 1950s and later, but I am revising this theory as I read more. I think the best way to identify the miseducation will be to find writings that survived the shifts in belief. To suggest to one of Jefferson's contemporaries that he wanted religion involved with the United States government would have gotten you laughed out of the room. Jefferson was not above using the law to support his personal beliefs, but we have his letters with Madison where they congratulate one another on keeping religion out of the government [see comments].
I bring this up as it is a MAJOR point for conservatives despite being clearly historically wrong.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Conservatism_in_the_United_States#:~:text=Conservatism%20in%20the%20United%20States%20is%20a%20political%20and%20social,%2Dcommunism%2C%20pro%2Dindividualism%2C
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Conservatism_in_the_United_States#:~:text=Conservatism%20in%20the%20United%20States%20is%20a%20political%20and%20social,%2Dcommunism%2C%20pro%2Dindividualism%2C
Anyone who ascribes to believes in made up history is one of the miseducated.
20200915 - "The white man's burden"
In February 1899, British novelist and poet Rudyard Kipling wrote a poem entitled “The White Man’s Burden: The United States and The Philippine Islands.”
I had hoped I would need to search further than this to find my evidence, as if all the evidence is laying about like this it is a wonder no one else stumbled upon it before.
"The White Man's Burden" had a clear historical impact, and yet most people alive now would refuse to believe that their great great grandparent, great grandparent, or grandparent was assuredly raised with (and most likely promoted) Racist views.
This poem influenced the future) US President Theodore Roosevelt and Global Policy as a result: http://historymatters.gmu.edu/d/5478/
We see contemporary refutations by famous figures such as Mark Twain, that were clearly ignored in favor of the "White Man" which in the USA was quite literal. "Predestination" was the idea that White Christians were beloved by God, and that God had made the world for White Men to rule".
This was such a common theme in those days that it was used to literally steal land from the natives. Really good evidence of how effective Christianity is as a moral spine to humanity in my thinking.
Just look at President Jackson's Message to Congress "On Indian Removal", December 6, 1830;
https://www.nps.gov/museum/tmc/MANZ/handouts/Andrew_Jackson_Annual_Message.pdf
We must admit that not just some, but most of our forefather's were selfish and racist people who had been indoctrinated by their conservative peers and teachers.
The reason I bring this poem up specifically is I found it in a Biology textbook. Which Biology textbook? Why only one of the most famous textbooks in history that no one remembers,:
A Civic Biology: Presented in Problems (usually referred to as just Civic Biology) was a biology textbook written by George William Hunter, published in 1914
http://www.gutenberg.org/files/39969/39969-h/39969-h.htm
Excerpt from The Economic Value of Trees. Protection and Regulation of Water Supply. : "It was such a strange, tremendous story, that of the Greek Poseidonia, later the Roman Pæstum. Long ago those adventuring mariners from Greece had seized the fertile plain, which at that time was covered with forests of great oak and watered by two clear and shining rivers. They drove the Italian natives back into the distant hills, for the white man's burden even then included the taking of all the desirable things that were being wasted by incompetent natives, and they brought over colonists—whom the philosophers and moralists at home maligned, no doubt, in the same pleasant fashion of our own day. And the colonists cut down the oaks, and plowed the land, and built cities, and made harbors, and finally dusted their busy hands and busy souls of the grime of labor and wrought splendid temples in honor of the benign gods who had given them the possessions of the Italians and filled them with power and fatness. "
Now one instance doesn't make a pattern, but that is clearly not a scientific phrase. Why is this Biology textbook, which was used to force schools to teach science, reinforcing a view that was known at the time to be wrong? Not only was this view known to be wrong, it had been known for at least 50 years.
At this point we can just accept that Christianity was only used as a way to excuse horrendous treatment of "savages", and that the people alive at the time knew this was true. The supporters of predestination at the time most likely were as vehement in their correctness as the neo-nazis of now.
So what is the picture I am painting? Why is this not in chronological order?
I am going to show you that not only is there a constant theme of "denying reality" among conservatives in the United States, but that it was purposeful refutation of correct information (truth).
Andrew Jackson did not consider the native population as human:
"And is it supposed that the wandering savage has a stronger attachment to his home than the settled, civilized Christian? Is it more afflicting to him to leave the graves of his fathers than it is to our brothers and children? Rightly considered, the policy of the General Government toward the red man is not only liberal, but generous. He is unwilling to submit to the laws of the States and mingle with their population. To save him from this alternative, or perhaps utter annihilation, the General Government kindly offers him a new home, and proposes to pay the whole expense of his removal and settlement."
I can say Jackson didn't consider "the red man" as human, because despite this claim that the "red man" would be relocated and all costs covered Jackson would end up authorizing the murder of many natives during his presidency. Just look at how Jackson promoted an incorrect view of the Native American people being "wandering savages" with no connection to the land.
"Whatabout" arguments bring up questions of "ownership", inheritance of land among Native American Tribes, and wars among the Tribes just before the "settling" of the Americas. My counter to this is the same as always, according to your logic if I want your house I just need to prove you haven't owned it "very long".
This argument is at its core insisting that the ownership of a landmass depends on how recently the government on that landmass changed leadership. The fact is that the native American people had been living on the continent without european intervention for at least 1,000 years:
Just for example he Connestee people, believed to be ancestors of the Cherokee, occupied western North Carolina circa 200 to 600 CE https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cherokee
This means that the Cherokee have a stronger claim to England than the English according to the "recent ownership theory", since the people the English descended from didn't arrive in England until after 400 CE: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anglo-Saxon_settlement_of_Britain
Honestly if you or anyone you know believes the ridiculously common conservative argument, please point out to them that based on the concept of ownership being based on time spent in a region, the Native American people owned half the world before the English stood up their bastion of failing Rome in the United Kingdom. Not only that, but the Native American people had a rich history that quite literally was all but destroyed between the 16th and 18th centuries.
Jesus H Christ, if you want to see even more proof that we have simply trained ourselves to be idiotic, look at this History Channel Page that supposedly tells the timeline of the Native American People: https://www.history.com/topics/native-american-history/native-american-timeline
It starts in 1492! That is not a history of the native american people, that is a history of European interaction with the Native American People's. This is a perfect example of how our common knowledge and supposed history is just conservative garbage.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Native_Americans_in_the_United_States
Looking at the actual Wikipedia page (look out for conservative Christian revisionism), we see that the people who populated the American continents lived there for millenia. "Western Christian Civilization" wasn't even a shitstain in homo sapiens diaper when the American continents were fully settled and replete with grand empires.
Not only did Jackson purposefully mis-inform the American people about the selfishness and evil of the "Indian Removal Act", but he used similar misinformation tactics to disguise other political agendas:
" Mexico, having for six years carried on against Texas a marauding war only, and that upon the most savage principles, inconsistant with all principles of civilised warfare, and against which all civilised nations which have acknowledged the Independence of Texas ought to unite, and by peaceful means, if it could, put it down, and if this could not be obtained peaceably, then all civillised and christian powers are bound to unite upon christian principle to put an end to this savage and inhuman war. The United States having been the first nation that acknowledged Texian Independence, are we not bound to be the first to boldly step forward to put an end to this savage maurading war. I think so. Texas harassed, and her means of war limitted presents herself to the united states to be annexed to, and protected by the United States. There being no embodied army marching against Texas for reconquest, great Britain trying to obtain the Liberation of the slaves in Texas for the avowed purpose of coercing the south and west into this measure by destroying the vallue of this property and opening a way for our slaves to run away to Texas, is [it] not time for the south and west to take the alarm, and as Texas has presented herself for voluntary annexation, which at once shuts the door against this impending evil, and secures Neworleans in case of a war with England, can it be, could it be, that any one could seriously suppose that the whole south and west would not unite upon this important subject, and with one voice cry out annexation. "
"I am very feeble, but excited by the subject, mortified at Mr. V.B. letter and Col. Bentons, for their is no evidence of ever the time being more propitious than the present, the necessitous situation of Texas, the prospects of the encouragement posponement will give to Mexico, with the secrete aid of great Britain and the consequences, makes my tears flow with regret. Texas may feel herself insulted and neglected by the refusal of the U. States and make a treaty with great Britain ruinous to the south west and to the safety of the Union, when we will have to fight both great Britain and mexico—on such an event what curses must fall upon all who refused to receive Texas."
It's almost like Andrew Jackson was a Racist, who while opposed / refuted by some of his contemporaries, the average American clearly supported Predestination.
It is no wonder that with this amount misinformation use already present by the 7th President we see a President today who does nothing but lie. Since conservatives value Opinion over Truth we can no longer trust anything that they claim, and we shouldn't have been letting these views infect out people for this long to begin with.

Special Interest Groups Damaged our Government:

This should be a perfectly reasonable debate with no partisanship or issues of religion / emotion (/s).
This is going to be a shit show, just be prepared.
Academics have almost universally responded poorly to this hypothesis, that the American People have been Miseducated for Generations.
It is quite possible that the misinformation campaigns which turned our nation into an "Idiocracy" were not exclusive to education centers.
Searching through the NY Times you can find many examples of Christian special interest groups attacking politicians for failing to align with their goals:
1832 Wig Paper lauding the destruction of Irish Culture- Constitutional Whig. [volume], September 28, 1824
1841 Indiana State sentinel. [volume], October 19, 1841: 1841 anti-irish sentiment

1840 - Mr. Van Buren has shown he is in favor of Free Negroes and Slaves to swear in Court against WHITE MEN! (emphasis theirs) The Hawk-eye and Iowa patriot., September 10, 1840
1842 article noting the South's prediliction for lynching, and arguing that good christians are not racist
1856 - christian editor taken to court for printing abolitionist sentiments in Va
1907 -white people are great even when they oppress their dark skinned brothers
1919 - princeton journal reference to "Irish need not apply". If you are of Irish heritage, your ancestors were called "white The Princeton union. [volume], December 04, 1919, Page 4
1949 - A congressman from Ohio tells other Congressmen he had never seen any segregation: https://history.house.gov/People/Detail/15130?ret=True
2005 - The United States is still fighting idiots pushing their religion in tax funded schools: https://www.nytimes.com/2005/12/20/science/sciencespecial2/judge-bars-intelligent-design-from-pa-classes.html

Textbooks which Promoted Conservative Christian Political Goals

1842 - The Religious instruction of the Negroes in the United States
ORIGIN on THE AMERICAN INDIANS. Hence it seems, at first glance, almost impossible that it should have been reached, in an age when ships Were small‘ and frail, when the mariner’s compass was unknown and the sailor dared not trust himself out of sight of land. This led men to suppose that the inhabitants of America did not descend from Adam and Eve, but from a race previously created. Such a theory’ is plainly contrary to the Bible record, nor is it needed to account for the settlement of America. .8. Later discoveries have brought to light a fact unknown to geographers three hundred years ago, that America wi- dens rapidly in the north, and there juts out into the ocean till it comes within thirty-six ‘miles of Asia. , As a current sets -towards the American shore, the passage thither can be readily made even in rude vessels. Boats may have been driven over by stress of weather, and the continent thus have been discovered without design. But there was a still‘ easier means of communication. In severe seasons, ,Behring’s Strait is frozen over. , ‘Many varieties of animals have passed on the ice from one continent to the other; and the first occupants of America, led by curiosity, or driven by violence,- may have reached the new world in the same manner. 9. At what time this event took place, we are not informed. History makes no mention of it. It is probable that it occurred at an early date, not many centuries after the dispersion at Babel and the consequent emigration from the plain of Shi’nar.
1875 Analysis of Civil Government
There is little need of comment "on this clause‘‘.‘‘ No “man can Well doubt the propriety of placing a President of the" United States’ under the most solemn obligations to preserve, protect, and defend the Constitution. It is "a suitable ‘pledge of his fidelity and responsibility to his 'country', and creates upon his conscience a deep ‘sense duty, by an appeal at once, in the presence of God and man, to the most sacred and solemn sanctions Which can operate upon the human mind
Oath. A solemn aflirmation or declaration, before a competent tribunal or ofiieer, to tell the truth, appealing to God for the truth of what is asserted.
1875 - Politics for young adults
TO PARENTS AND TEACHERS. to be a good citizen of the United States one ought to be imbued with the spirit of Christianity, and to believe in and act upon the teachings of Jesus. He condemned self-seeking, covetousness, hypocrisy, class distinctions, envy, malice, undue and ignoble ambition
Old textbooks:
ATTITUDES REVEALED IN SUBJECT MATTER Since geography textbooks dealt extensively with people and customs, the opportunity was great for authors to reveal their attitudes regarding the various peoples and their ways of living. In many geographies, especially in the earlier ones, the content revealed that the attitudes of the authors were often biased. Religious Attitudes. The earliest geographies were written when our country was still dominantly Protestant and the academic leaders were either trained as ministers or at least deeply religious. J edidiah Morse and Elijah Parish were both Congregational ministers. Not even all Protestant groups were equally respected. For example, in the first American written geography, Morse in 1784 referred to the Presbyterians and Lutherans as “numerous and respectable.” Parish, in enumerating the religious groups, began with small letters the words Baptists, Methodists, Quakers, and Catholics, but began with capital letters Presbyterian, Congregationalists, and Lutherans. ‘ Many of the early books particularly contained unfavorable comments about other religions than Protestants. Morse in his 1790 edition referred to Roman Catholicism in Spain as “of most bigoted, superstitious, and tyrannical character.” Dwight (1806), Parish (1810), and Adams (1818) used the term “Pop- ery” in referring to Roman Catholicism. Davies (1805) claimed that the priests in Ireland ruled with “blind superstition and ignorance.” Many other early geographies contained similar statements. Later several geography textbooks were written by Catholic
GEOGRAPHIES Q13 authors which were equally biased against Protestantism. Among these were texts by Pinnock (1853) and Sadlier (1880). The latter, in referring to religious conditions in Ireland, said: England abandoned the Catholic faith in the 16th century, and to this country belongs the ignoble distinction of having oppressed and persecuted the Irish nation with a barbarity unparalleled in the history of man’s inhumanity to man. Most Protestant authors referred to the Protestants in Euro- pean countries with respect. Parish (1810) said, “The Scotch clergy are men of learning and piety.” Woodbridge (1835) said, in referring to the Scots, “They are remarkable for knowledge and morality, produced by their numerous schools, and their at- tention to public worship.” In referring to non-Christian religions, likewise, uncompli- mentary statements were often made. A number of authors re- ferred to Mahomet as an “imposter.” Morse (1800) wrote: “In a word, the contagion spread over Arabia, Syria, Egypt, and Persia; Mahomet, from a deceitful hypocrite, became the most powerful monarch in his time.” Warren in 1872 referred to Mohammed as a “false prophet.” Uncomplimentary statements were also made about the religions in Japan and India. Reform Attitudes. The teaching of religion and morality was really the chief aim of education in early American schools. This aim was even dominant. in geography textbooks. Thus many forms of behavior which the authors considered immoral were severely condemned. Alcohol. Morse (1790) believed “in proportion as the use of beer increases, in the same proportion will the use of spiritous liquors decrease. This will be a happy exchange.” Parish (1810) condemned the “numerous Taverns,” and “grogshops.” Several condemned the sale of liquors to Indians.
submitted by intellectualgulf to u/intellectualgulf [link] [comments]


2020.09.07 15:42 demfrecklestho Weekly Schedule (September 7 - September 13)

2020 – Week 37

In this strange strange year, Tirreno-Adriatico had finally managed to avoid clashing with Paris-Nice... only to be held at the same time as Tour de France. There's not only those two major races going on though, but also the biggest event on the women's calendar as well!
Race M/W Rank M T W T F S S
Tour de France M 2.WT < R 10 11 12 13 14 15 (+6)
Belgrade-Banjaluka M 2.1 < 4
Tour Cycliste Feminin International de l’Ardèche W 2.1 < 5 6 7
Tirreno-Adriatico M 2.WT 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 (+1)
Turul României M 2.1 P 1 2 3 4 5
Wyścig Solidarności i Olimpijczyków M 2.2 1 2 3 4
Giro d’Italia Internazionale Femminile W 2.WT 1 2 3 (+6)
Antwerp Port Epic M 1.1 x

Week 36 recap

There was quite a lot going on last week, even though most races were pretty small… and they were made even smaller by the fact that they were battling for visibility with the biggest race on the calendar!
The Tour de France is having its first break day today, and after nine days Primož Roglič is leading the GC, and is looking very dominating! One has to wonder if he will be able to keep it up for three weeks, though- I can’t help but think of the 2019 Giro, where he looked… extraterrestrial in the first week but faded a bit later on. Egan Bernal has had his ups and downs, but is still sitting in second place in GC, while after Thibaut Pinot faltered in spectacular fashion all French hopes are now behind Guillaume Martin, who has had a fantastic first week and is now sitting a surprising third in GC.
The only other somewhat major races on the men’s calendar were the Settimana Coppi e Bartali in Italy and the Tour du Doubs in France. The Italian stage race, as usual, has been a great chance for second-tier riders to prove themselves, and we’ve seen excellent results by Ineos’ Jhonatan Narvaez, who won the GC, and promising Italian neopro Andrea Bagioli (Deceuninck) amongst others. Over in France, Loïc Vliegen (Circus) scored a solo win in Doubs, while young Eritrean Biniyam Ghirmay (Nippo Delko) was a surprise second- especially considering he had been racing in Italy up until two days before.
As for lesser races… let’s go over the most relevant results quickly: CCC had a blast in the Tour of Hungary, winning sprints with Kuba Mareczko and the queen stage (as well as the overall) with Attila Valter. With the team’s future in jeopardy, the riders are doing their best to look palatable to potential new employers! Young Brit Thomas Pidcock won the Giro d’Italia U23 and he did so with a truly dominating performance, having won all three mountain stages. Out of the flurry of one-day races held in Turkey, Anatolii Budiak won two for the men and young up-and-coming Russian rider Mariia Novolodskaya won two for the women.

Tour de France

After a well-earned rest day on Monday, racing in the Grande Boucle resumes with two flat stages which have “four French PCT guys in a doomed breakaway” written all over them. After this lull, things get serious again from Thursday, with two stages in the often overlooked Massif Central area- stage 12 is very long and gets very tough in the second half, while stage 13 features a short but steep uphill finish. Saturday’s stage looks like breakaway terrain, with the riders finally reaching the Alps on Sunday with an uphill finish atop the Grand Colombier… coming after two cat 1 climbs and a difficult descent. Of course, the Tour is probably the most accessible race worldwide in terms of coverage, and there will be more in-depth discussion of each stage here on /peloton.

Giro d’Italia Internazionale Femminile

…or Giro Rosa for short.
This is the women’s Giro d’Italia, and undoubtedly the most important stage race on the women’s calendar. Being such an important race, one might expect its coverage to be thorough… but one would be very wrong, every year news break that there is going to be live coverage, and every year we end up not getting it! To be fair, this race does not have the backing of RCS like the men’s Giro, everything is much smaller… although the top athletes in the world will be at the start.
The race lasts nine days, from Friday to next Saturday, and it sticks to the country’s central-southern part for 2020. We’re kicking off with three stages between Tuscany and Umbria- stage 1 is a flat TTT, stage 2 is hilly and has an unpaved climb not far from the finish line, and Sunday’s stage 3 ends with a short but steep climb into Assisi. We’ll describe the other stages next week. The defending champion is Annemiek van Vleuten, who won the race for two years in a row and who had an absolutely dominating performance in 2019… although it has to be noted that this year’s course is way tamer than last year’s, so the GC fight might end up being more interesting.

Tirreno-Adriatico

Tirreno-Adriatico was one of the first races to be cancelled back in March, as Italy got hit by the pandemic a few weeks before most of Europe. It’s a week-long WT stage race held in the middle of the country, named after the two seas it connects… and the winner gets an objectively rad prize, a trident like Poseidon’s. To make up for the rescheduling, the race is now one day longer: there will be 8 stages instead of the usual 7. The opening TTT has been scrapped in favour of a sprint stage: the racing gets progressively more difficult until Friday, with the queen stage ending atop the Sarnano-Sassotetto climb. Sunday’s stage should also be an entertaining one, as it features many muri, short but very steep climbs. The race will wrap up one week from now with the usual S. Benedetto del Tronto ITT. Primož Roglič won last year, snatching the win away from Adam Yates on the very last stage and by the tiniest of margin- neither of them are back to defend their title though, as they have been amongst the most visible riders during the early stages of the Tour de France! The race will be broadcasted live in Italy and France; Eurosport had the rights to the live broadcast, but scrapped it because of the TdF being on at the same time.

Tour Cycliste Feminin International de l’Ardèche

As we were saying last week, this French stage race is one of the toughest events on the women’s calendar, although the second half of it mellows out quite a bit. Stages 5 and 7 are fairly flat for the race’s standard, while stage 6 might play an important role GC-wise with a 2-kms long climb to the finish… coming after a 21-kms long climb summiting just 23 kms from the finish line. It seemed that this was finally the year we’d get live imagery from this race, but that ended up not being the case with only highlight reels made available. Side note for the history buffs- stage 5 starts by the famous Pont du Gard, a famous preserved Roman acqueduct. After four stages, Spanish climber Mavi Garcia (Ale) has a rather comfortable lead in the GC, having won two stages so far and having limited her losses in the queen stage. Austrian Anna Kiesenhofer, who is there with her country’s national team, has been the surprise of the race so far- granted, the field is not stellar, but having a relatively unknown rider in second place is very surprising!

Antwerp Port Epic

Some monikers get abused in cycling, but the Antwerp Port Epic lives up to its name with a very challenging course. This race is a spinoff of Schaal Sels, which used to be a sprinter-friendly race held around Antwerp; the course changed over the years to include several gravel sections in the port area, which made the race very difficult… but also very different from what it used to be! In order to keep the old Schaal Sels tradition, the organizers decided to split the race in two- Schaal Sels reverted to its old sprinters-friendly course, and the Antwerp Port Epic inherited all the difficult sections that had been introduced in recent years. Having been first held in 2018, Wanty has a 100% success rate in this race so far. Will their streak (mind you, it’s only been two years!) extend to 2020 as well? Tune in on Sporza and Eurosport on Sunday to find out.

Turul României

The national tour of Romania, lasting from Tuesday to Sunday. It has made the jump to the 2.1 category last year, but its startlist is quite subpar- and the concentration of races certainly does not help to attract big teams to this race! After two years where the course was pretty much the same, the race changed a bit for 2020, starting out with a short prologue in Timişoara followed by two likely sprint stages, two days in the mountains and a finale with an urban circuit along Bucarest’s boulevards, an Eastern European take on the Champs-Elysées. Last year, Dutch rider Alex Molenaar was a bit of a surprise winner, having gained the lead from a breakaway and having limited his losses in the mountains. The race should be livestreamed.

Belgrade-Banjaluka

The last of the four stages that make up this Balkan race takes place on Monday, and it is a completely flat affair in Bosnian territory reaching into the city of Banjaluka, after which the race is named. Polish rider Jakub Kaczmarek (Mazowsze) is the GC leader.

Wyścig Solidarności i Olimpijczyków

This event, which also goes by the frendlier French moniker Course Cycliste de Solidarnosc et des Champions Olympiques, is a four-days long Polish stage race and the only .2 event of the week. It’s held in the southeastern part of the country and while some stages tend to be slightly hilly, they all flatten out towards the end, looking palatable to sprinters. Last year, young Estonian Norman Vahtra had a breakout performance here, part of his solid season which earned him a jump to the WT with Israel for 2020.
submitted by demfrecklestho to peloton [link] [comments]


2020.09.07 00:49 myawithluv Why do people think like this??

I can’t right now lmaoo. I just saw this opinion on UKO, and I— How can someone think this way? Even some K-Pop idols themselves acknowledge that the styling, concepts, music, etc are influenced and inspired by black culture. No one is saying that “k-pop is stealing from black culture”, we just want to see our major influences be showcased in the proper way. No one is saying that groups that rap is the reason for some groups’ popularity or these idols can’t wear street wear like where did that come from?
I got into a little discussion with the OP who wrote that opinion and they seemed so ignorant albeit saying they were down to discuss the topic. I sent them 3 articles on black people influencing fashion and culture throughout history, then they responded with “if we really look into it modern fashion wouldn’t exist without the Europeans”.....bitch what? I’m done. I’m not even going to respond to them because I’m done wasted my time and energy trying to convince this person of something they’re obviously not capable of understanding.
That opinion was bad even for UKO standards and the bar is in the f*cking ground. Anyways I just needed to get that out🤧
submitted by myawithluv to kpopnoir [link] [comments]


2020.09.05 09:27 Ocelot1138 Educational Timeline of the British Throne and others.

I have been working on a series of timelines that tell the story of the British Throne and have had some praise for the work on Reddit. I hope to create educational resources that tell history in a way I never had at school; and to that end they must be as accurate as possible within the parameters of a postepage/slide.
I make these on PowerPoint because I am too cool for any other possible tools. I am also a simple man.
The first one I put on /dataisbeatiful in two versions, WIP and Final with PDF link. I have highlighted important events to situate the historical time. Any constructive comments would be welcome again.
The next one is am working on it a less Anglo-centric chart of the British throne, currently WIP. The events highlighted are those that I think are crucial to the formation of the modern United Kingdom (Reformation, Treaties, Rebellions and Colonies etc.), but of course, I can't include everything.
  1. I would love to see what a more history minded community thinks, and also have I made any mistakes?
  2. Any comments on my current WIP would be most welcome. More Welsh/Irish inclusion, changes visually/aesthetically etc?
  3. What other timelines could be simplified to the degree I have tried, but also educational and interesting to see in a similar fashion. I will look at the French throne afterwards, but the European thrones do get very intertwined easily. Chinese dynasties, Prime Ministers and Important Laws, any ideas?
Thank you for your time.
submitted by Ocelot1138 to history [link] [comments]


2020.09.04 11:00 HauntedSpy SKs you never might've heard of: Africa

\Note: Egypt has territory in* Asia, but since most of the country's in Africa, it's included in this post. In this post, I'll showcase a convicted or suspected SK in each country* on the African continent from a list I've been compiling about SKs around the world, which have yet to receive a Wikipedia entry. Each section will contain some info on their crimes, and a link/source from which I got it. I hope you'll find this as interesting as I do. Let us begin. ALGERIA: Madeleine Mouton (1940s-1947; 7 victims) French gendarme's wife who poisoned 11 men in Sidi Bel Abbès, killing seven of them. Only woman to be guillotined in the country's history. Executed 1948 ANGOLA: Severino Tchivinda (2015; 5-9 victims) Between March and November, he targeted mainly prostitutes in Menongue, luring them to his house and then killing them to satisfy his thirst for blood. Two victims were decapitated and buried under his home. When arrested, he pretended to be insane. Imprisoned, sentence unknown. BENIN: None to my knowledge BOTSWANA: Oreeditse Mokoti (2008; 4-6 victims) The Kanye Serial Killer Lured victims to his girlfriend's house in Kanye, where he proceeded to murder them. Notably, Mokoti was photographed taking pictures with the country's then-president: Ian Khama. Committed suicide in prison custody. BURKINA FASO: Ouagadougou Axeman (2008-2011; 10-15+ victims) Active in the capital's Boulmiougou district, he would target night watchmen and people sleeping in their homes, smashing their heads in with rocks or mutilating them with an axe. Authorities theorize that multiple individuals, perhaps a gang, could be responsible. Unsolved. BURUNDI: None to my knowledge CAMEROON: None to my knowledge CAPE VERDE: Zezinho Catana (1980s-2013; 4+ victims) Fishmonger who was first convicted of murder in the 1980s, serving 22 years in prison. After his release, he killed and dismembered at least two women in São Vicente, selling their meat in the markets. His final recorded murder was the dismemberment murder of his roommate. Cape Verde's first recorded SK. Sentenced to 25 years imprisonment. CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC: None to my knowledge CHAD: None to my knowledge COMOROS: None to my knowledge DR CONGO: Armel Bazonzama (2009-2010; 8 victims) Would meet his victims at bus stops in Brazzaville, gain their trust and then lure them to isolated places, where he would kill them and sexually abuse their corpses. His method of murder is the most bizarre I've encountered so far: he hugged his victims to death. Sentenced to death. CONGO: None to my knowledge DJIBOUTI: None to my knowledge EGYPT: Saad Iskandar Abd al-Masih (1948-1951; 3+ victims) The Butcher of Karmoz Wandering textile merchant who first murdered his lover in Asyut. He later fled to Alexandria, where he lured predominantly female victims to his house, where he would stab and then rob them. Suspected of many murders, but only two could be proven. Executed 1953. EQUATORIAL GUINEA: None to my knowledge ERITREA: Eunice Brillhart (1952-1953; 3 victims) English-American wife of a G.I. stationed in the country. While residing in the town of Asmara, she murdered three of her newborn daughters, passing the deaths off as accidents. Sentenced to life imprisoned, but later released, dying a free woman in Albuquerque, NM in 1958. ESWATINI: Vusi Phineas Dlamini (2008-2009; 8 victims) Rapist who assaulted and murdered women near riverbanks, mutilating some of their bodies post-mortem. His trial has been postponed three times, due to his deteriorating health condition. Currently in hospital. ETHIOPIA: None to my knowledge GABON: Yves Obinga Mouele (2010s-2019; 2+ victims) Known by his nickname "Martial", this married father of eleven children has uncontrollable sexual urges, leading him to seek out and strangle prostitutes in Libreville. So far, only two murders have been confirmed (March 13/May 25), but he's suspected of many others. Case under investigation. THE GAMBIA: None to my knowledge GHANA: None to my knowledge GUINEA: None to my knowledge GUINEA-BISSAU: The Machete Killers (2010s-2018; 3-5 victims) Gang of murderers who terrorized the residents of an unspecified region in the country. Connected to three murders, but one of the gang members confessed to five total. Little information is available, and the suspects' names are withheld. Awaiting trial. IVORY COAST: Drissa Coulibaly (2010s; 0-21 victims) Child kidnapper who's suspected of abducting and beheading at young boys in Abidjan. Arrested after attempting to decapitate two young boys with a machete. Currently imprisoned, status unknown. KENYA: Edward Shimoli (1980s-1999; 14 victims) The Kenyan Carlos the Jackal Career criminal responsible for various crimes in Nairobi, including rapes, murders and bank robberies, which he committed with three accomplices. He was also an accomplished jailbreaker, escaping prison on multiple occassions. Gunned down by authorities in 2007. LESOTHO: Lebohang Rantšo (2000s-2010s; 15+ victims) Gang leader who maims, kills and murders entire families with his associates, burning down their houses and villages in both Lesotho and South Africa. Fugitive. LIBERIA: None to my knowledge LIBYA: Michael Downs (1963-1988; 3 victims) The Blackpool Serial Killer While serving as a soldier in Libya, he shot dead a taxi driver in Benghazi. After serving a six-month sentence for manslaughter, he returned to Blackpool, England, where he stabbed to death two elderly women (one in 1978, the other in 1988). Sentenced to life imprisonment. MADAGASCAR: None to my knowledge MALAWI: The Dzaleka Serial Killers (2017-2020; victim count unknown) In the last three years, the Dzaleka refugee camp, located near Dowa, has been hit with a spat of serial murders against victims of various ages and of both sexes. Currently, three suspects have been detained (a Congolese national in 2017; two Beninese in 2020, unrelated to the first) and a third is on the run. It's unclear if there's more of them out there. Under investigation. MALI: Oumar Doumbia (2016-2017; 5 victims) Scammer who lured victims with promises for visas for European countries, taking them out of town, where he would bash their heads in with a rock. He then disposed of the bodies in various sectors around the country. Imprisoned, sentence unknown. MAURITANIA: None to my knowledge MAURITIUS: None to my knowledge MOROCCO: Abdelhak Toumi (2005-2006; 3 victims) The Agadir Strangler A married man whose wife was pregnant at the time of the murders, he would entice sex workers, ostensibly for their services, then raped and strangled them. After that, he would cut up the body parts and scatter them in various garbage bins around Agadir. Sentenced to life imprisonment. MOZAMBIQUE: None to my knowledge NAMIBIA: None to my knowledge NIGER: None to my knowledge NIGERIA: Henry Chibueze (2010s-2017; 17-200+ victims) The Vampire Career criminal and cultist who, together with gang, extorted, kidnapped and murdered people across the country, sometimes killing entire families. His first recorded victims were his girlfriend and her 8-member family, which included six children. Sentence unknown. RWANDA: African Ripper (2012; 15+ victims) During August and September, a wave of sex workers were found strangled to death in Kigali. Two men were arrested for the crimes, but since no articles have mentioned a conviction, I assume they either haven't been tried yet or were acquitted. Police suspect that aside from these two men, there could be other perpetrators, or the true killer hasn't been caught yet. Unsolved. SÃO TOME AND PRINCIPE: None to my knowledge SENEGAL: None to my knowledge SEYCHELLES: None to my knowledge SIERRA LEONE: None to my knowledge SOMALIA: None to my knowledge SOUTH AFRICA: Cameron Wilson (2014-2016; 5 victims) The psychopathic son of an alleged gangster, he raped and stabbed to death people in Cape Town ina most cruel fashion, burning some of the bodies afterwards. The callous Wilson also laughed in the faces of the victims' families when he was handed down his sentence, and was quoted as saying that "at least [he]'s still alive". Sentenced to life imprisoment. SOUTH SUDAN: None to my knowledge SUDAN: None to my knowledge TANZANIA: Sirieli Kaaya (2009-2012; victim count unknown) Little information is available about him, but allegedly stabbed to death people around the country with a loose gang of accomplices. Escaped prison on multiple occassions. Gunned down by authorities in 2012 TOGO: Olivier Attiogbe (2010s-2019; 6 victims) Poisoned his wife and his in-laws, in a scheme that would let him acquire the land. Captured after trying to poison other family members. Awaiting trial. TUNISIA: Kamel Lahouel (2003; 1-14 victims) The Sousse Serial Killer Convicted solely for the murder of an elderly taxi driver, but he later confessed to killing a total of 14 people across the country. Sentenced to death. UGANDA: Richard Arinaitwe (1990s-1998; 1-8 victims) Solely convicted for the murder of an American woman who had come to the country to help during the AIDS crisis, whom he strangled at the Equatorial Hotel. After his arrest, he confessed to killing seven other people, but I couldn't find any information them. Sentenced to death, reduced to life imprisonment, which was later quashed to 24 years imprisonment. ZAMBIA: Milton Sipalo (1980; 29 victims) The Lusaka Strangler Between January and September, this Zambian Army soldier who seduced young women from railway station and other public places , luring them to dark alleyways where he would rape and strangle them. He would then rob them of their valuables and then dispose of the corpse in public areas for everybody to see. He was captured, but after only 76 hours of custody, he climbed on top of the Police HQ and jumped to his death. ZIMBABWE: Angeline Mabhiza (2012-2014; 8 victims) First poisoned two of her newborns in 2012 and 2013, for which she only served community service, as she was mentally ill. After she was released, she got into an argument with her mother, during which she poisoned six more children with pesticide. Committed suicide to avoid arrest.
submitted by HauntedSpy to serialkillers [link] [comments]


2020.09.03 08:54 pit__and__pendulum So I’ve kinda “tried to type myself” into a rut, help is appreciated, please help me make it stop I miss being happy lol :’)

So for some background, I’ve previously attempted to type myself into a rut and decided to get typed and got ESTP. Before I submitted my request I thought I might be ISTP, but then I got that, and I rolled with it for a while because I figured it made sense for me, but I'm not so sure. One thing I’m very confident of having is Ti and Fe, it’s just my d a m n perceiving axis that’s giving me trouble. (And honestly maybe I’m a feeler too?? Maybe I’m just doubting too much lol the typing was pretty coherent)
One of the factors that made them type me as a sensor was that I couldn’t describe Ne or Ni, but I also didn’t have a good grasp of Ne or Ni at that time to begin with, but I think I have a better grasp now. I was also just grasping the functions in general, my confidence in knowing Te vs Ti was shaky as well. I pretty much remember them as they’re quoted from Micheal Pierce’s video and I just grasp the concept way better. (I see it as Ni focuses and Ne expands—like visualizing that in terms of a camera lens, and then Ne expands into a web the further it goes, and Ni might converge into a point (like this: /) ). I think my lack of understanding might have obstructed my answers, since I also mentioned that I don’t usually trust my gut feelings, have an eye for aesthetics/like to dress nice, and mentioned that I leaned towards Ni (But now that I know more about it,,,🤷🏾‍♀️).
This still might hold up, but I think I have a different relationship with my “gut”, I do have a certain degree of trust in my gut feelings, but when I get strong gut feelings that inspire me to act, other possibilities do infer doubt in my initial gut feeling, and I have to sift through them with much effort if the subject of this gut feeling is a source of anxiety. I don’t like to trust any assumptions too hard because there are other possibilities that could be true, and when it comes down to it, I might not know the truth. My “maybes” can inspire me to pursue things just as much as they can inspire me to retreat from them. If I get a gut feeling, I can fool myself into thinking why or why not if I let my constant over-analyzing get the best of me. If there isn’t solid closure chances are I’ll likely trail back to it in my mind and have to reason with myself why that can’t or shouldn’t happen/be done. My considerations of multiple possibilities and skepticism kinda make me consider the possibility of having an intuitive function, but of course sensors can consider multiple possibilities. I’m honestly not too keen on acting impulsively, and screen things pretty often before making a choice and going forward. In fact, I have ask myself the question “why shouldn’t I do x?” to not let my caution hold me back from something.
Also, in comparison to my friend who is most likely an Se-Dom (I figure ESFP/ISFP and with his input he relates to Se-Dom description), I’m not as outgoing, I’m not as prioritizing of sensory experiences (I love fun, but like,,,he be on some other shit lol), I value the future way more even when I was depressed, and I’m not as impulsive. Also, just a tidbit, he’s repeatedly asked me why I’m so into this if I can’t get bitches which I find very funny. (Honestly just for the sake of it I guess)
You guys have a whole questionnaire, sooo I'm going to use that.
-I am 16 and female. I like art, I LOVE a good movie and I love going to the movies, I really like mind-bending movies like Inception, Arrival, or Annihilation, or movies about history like Dunkirk or just a good old fashioned MCU movie, or a comedy movie, but honestly if it tickles my “I HAVE TO SEE THIS” bone, I will be in that theater inching closer to Type 2 Diabetes as I indulge in my sweet tooth. I also really like Christopher Nolan’s work and I will FIGHT SOMEONE to see Tenet :( (can you tell how much I miss going to the movies?). I've always been a reader since I was little, and a writer since I was a kid although I don't remember when I started, just that I've always come up with stories. I do remember that the reason I started making my stories more creative writing based is that it occurred to me that movies are expensive (literally), and I've been writing ever since (although I am also in a film class). I liked to play and go shopping and get dolls along with reading, although as I grew up, I got naturally more withdrawn, and sadly I don't get many dolls anymore My mom told me I always had a gentle quality about me, although I was also an angry child (I remember the temper tantrums too lol). I love animals and nature, and something that I've failed to mention is my draw towards spirituality. I first got into Wicca/Witchcraft, then divination (which I still do from time to time, I actually used to do readings for other people), and also light polytheism, although I'm not sure that's the perfect description. I do think there's something beyond our physical world, and I think I'll always have that feeling and appreciation for spirituality. Although it's kind of something private I think it's something I should include because it is a part of my personality. I can be silly and mischievous, but I guess I'm generally more reserved, and apparently intimidating.
-I don't have any diagnosis, but I do tend to get anxious and have had something I think is fair to call depression in the past.
-In my upbringing, I got more emotional warmth from my Mom but had more fun with my Dad. I lived with my Grandma who I didn't really like because I never got to have any space because of her and she always wanted something (she was still my Grandma though). My mom was very into W O K E afro-centric stuff if you know what I mean and I got dragged along to stuff pertaining that as a kid. I eventually grew tired of it and still have a bit of disdain for it now. It was just so...boring and all they would do is talk about boring stuff, not to mention dwelling on black suffering and oppression is a huge bummer and a little anxiety-inducing. After getting saturated (force-fed) in that stuff I'm just not interested in it, which is something my Mom doesn't seem to get lol, I think she thinks I have some deep issue with it, but I haven't dismissed it completely. For example, I don't really care to watch a documentary or read a book just for the sake of learning more about "black stuff" to put it inelegantly, but I do want to know what relations between Europeans and Africans were like before anti-blackness became a "thing", which was part of the topic for my synthesis essay last year, although the exact topic was the portrayal of POC (black people in particular though) in Western art before colonialism. (Unfortunately, there was barely any information on the topic for me to research and my cat had just died and the writing of the essay was canceled because COVID and workload, which thank god because trying to research for that topic was virtually impossible, which really stressed me out). I also got my spiritual inclinations from my upbringing with my Mom (ISFJ 9w1 btw), who's spiritual (she was/is very into Yoga) and believes in ancestors and Orishas (I've noticed she's researched more about this topic and gotten more into practice and ritual, whereas I’m more “casual” with it per se, although the more accurate term might be “lazy” and “inconsistent”).
-I don't have a career, but I've always enjoyed school, although that love has waned strongly (lol). When I was younger I LOVED school, I even liked school uniforms. I don't like the pacing and I don't like the stress of school, but I always enjoy the learning part. I like taking notes, research, learning cool stuff and doing projects (if they're about things I'm interested in). The social aspect of school has always been kind of a shaky thing, I've never really fit in with most kids, although it did get a little better in high school because there were more artsy/creative people around, but I generally don't have the same interests as most of my peers (not to sound like "oh my god I'm so qUiRkY and different”). Most of my peers in school seemed kind of unmotivated, kinda immature and petty, a little boring (not to be mean, buuut kinda yeah), but generally nice/not too bad. I mean, we're all trying our best, and I tend to be a little critical and judgmental but I like to be fair. I seem to have a pattern of only lasting three years in different schools, and the less there is to explore and the more repetitive it feels, the more antsy I’ve gotten with the desire to “escape” somewhere else. This is amplified if the social situation is detrimental as well.
I’m going to not to the questionnaire now because I’m really tired. :D
I really get excited by getting into a new thing like atm I’m getting into Philosophy and Logic and it’s a new field that’s expanding my mind. My mom has also mentioned to me my interest in systems, and being naturally organized, although that organization only carries me so far. I want to expand my mind, I don’t like feeling limited and complacent, which I tend to feel when I get bored with things, and I will be motivated to take on a new challenge. I am intimidated by things that seem like a lot of work and really hard, but eventually the feeling of being limited or not improving (or to put it indelicately a “lil BITCH”) will get at me, because if I’m actively avoiding challenges and shooting low when I know I can do better even if it’s harder for me and I get less relaxation time, I’m essentially shooting myself in the foot. I could miss out on more knowledge, and staying average for the sake of ease when I have the potential to expand beyond that just isn’t wise.
And, as true as this all is, now that I’m actually in my senior year doing an AP for the first time and Academic Decathlon because past me got excited by the idea of learning all areas of a topic and competing (although the competition did intimidate me), I reallly miss the easy road. (Really took it for granted 💀 no going back now)
Hopefully you guys can get something from this. Thank you!
submitted by pit__and__pendulum to MbtiTypeMe [link] [comments]


2020.09.02 16:12 minimalistcookie China into Africa: Trade, Aid, and Influence (BOOK) by Robert I. Rotberg (Preface and Part 1)

Africa attracted China as early as the T’ang dynasty (A.D. 618–907); what is now modern Kenya or Tanzania. By the eleventh or twelfth centuries, the eastern African coast appeared to have been shipping elephant tusks, rhinoceros horn, tortoise shell, aromatic woods, incense, and myrrh to southern China. During the Sung dynasty (A.D. 1127–1279), Chinese shipping was common throughout the western reaches of the Indian Ocean.
Between 1417 and 1431, the Ming emperors dispatched three large expeditions to eastern Africa. Only Africa could supply a confirmation of these blessings; the arrival of unicorns from distant lands would supply the propitious signs of heaven’s mandate, and only in Africa could unicorns — giraffe—be found.
China and Africa have enriched each other intellectually, culturally, and commercially ever since. Though, influence have been episodic. During the twentieth century, Maoist China funded and educated sub-Saharan African anti-colonial liberation movements.
China assisted the new Sub-Saharan African countries during the 20th century by providing military hardware and training, but also providing Chinese labour and capital to construct major railways and roads. This new movement can be considered as "their third era of heavy engagement".
China’s current thrust into sub-Saharan Africa promises to do more for economic growth and poverty alleviation there than anything attempted by Western colonialism or the massive initiatives of the international lending agencies and other donors. China's insatiable demand for liquid forms of energy, and for the raw materials responds to Sub-Saharan Africa's relative abundant supplies of unprocessed metals, diamonds, and gold. China also offers a ready market for Africa’s timber, cotton, sugar, and other agricultural crops. This new symbiosis between Africa and China could be the making of Africa.
However, there are major cautions. China is no altruist. China professes to care little about how individual African nations are being ruled; nor does it seek to change or improve the societies in which it is becoming a major, if not the dominant, commercial influence. China is extractive and exploitive and simultaneously seeking to remove any remaining African ties to Taiwan.
Moreover, importing Chinese labour to complete Chinese-organised infrastructural and mining project inhibits skill transfers and reduces indigenous employment growth. This breeds resentment as well as the undercutting of local merchants and industrialists by the supply of cheaper Chinese goods. Africans, and Westerners complain about China's disdain for human rights and mayhem in Africa.
China is opportunistic. This book assesses the positive and negative results of its latest moves into Africa. The contributors weight the available evidence from a variety of national perspectives. Therefore, this is as much an African as a Chinese analysis, with European and American inputs as well.
1. China's Quest for Resources, Opportunities, and Influence in Africa by Rotberg
China and Africa desperately need each other. China cannot easily grow without Africa. Nor can Sub-Saharan Africa subsist, and now prosper, without China. Africa and China have at last met, and their recently forged and continuously reinvigorated, mutually reinforced, interactive relationship is already tight and will for decades grow ever stronger, more thoroughly intertwined. Both benefit significantly from this remarkably symbiotic relationship.
China has mercantilist ambitions through seeking raw materials, but hardly wants to colonise. China needs natural resources to feed its own industrial surge. No world power had an appetite equal to China's today.
However, China also invests for the long-term by constructing or refurbishing roads, railways and creating export processing zones, supplying equipment, and building up national industrial bases. Never have the economies of Sub-Saharan Africa grown so rapidly. Potentially, Chinese purchases and direct expenditures could lift key African countries out of poverty.
Chinese strategies believe that their developmental model, and China's history, provide valuable lessons for Africa. Lifting millions of Chinese out of poverty offers a powerful guiding example, as does China's rapid achievement of political stability and international prominence. "Such a national narrative," writes Chin-Hao Huang, "resonates powerfully in Africa (see page 298).
China's goals are ideological as well as material. China wants to marginalise Taiwan's engagement with Africa.
How many African countries still recognise Taiwan?
China is not necessarily in competition with the United States or Europe for Africa. China prefers to acquire loyal friends in Africa – friends who supported its application for a permanent seat on the Security Council, its entrance into the World Trade Organisation, and its desire to host the 2008 Olympics.
"China has robust and reciprocal partnerships with African states at the highest levels of diplomacy, in contrast to Euro-American tendencies to treat African states as second-tier players." - Stephanie Rupp
Interesting contrast between how China treats African countries and how the US and European countries treat them.
China has displaced European, American, and Japanese diplomatic, and capitalistic soft power by "winning influence in countries where Western governments were conspicuous by their absence".
China's diplomatic offensive has been as thorough as its investment, trade, and aid advances. China has established embassies in 38 countries in Sub-Saharan Africa in addition to exchanging military attachés with 14 African nations and created Confucius Institutes in several national capitals.
Throughout Africa, scholarships are available for study in China, and student exchanges are common.
China has become the largest new investor, trader, buyer, and aid donor in a select of important countries, and a major new economic force in Sub-Saharan Africa as a whole. Trade has jumped in value from $10 billion in 2000 to about $50 billion in 2007. Everywhere, China is building roads, railways, harbours, petrochemical installations, and military barracks; pumping or purchasing oil; farming; taking timber; supplying labourers; and offering physicians.
China's roughly $1.5 billion invested in Africa in 2006, about half went to resource-rich nations.
To become a major world power and global economic source, China needs sources of energy and the raw materials – copper, cobalt, cadmium, manganese, platinum, nickel, zinc, tantalum, titanium, uranium, and so on – that African nations can supply.
About 40 percent of Africa's total exports to Asia are to China; about 30 percent of Asia's total exports to Africa are from China.
China imports copper from Zambia and the DRC. Broadman posits that "China's commercial engagement with Sub-Saharan Africa could enable African businesses to build on the continent's endowment of natural resources and develop more sophisticated backward and forward integration to extract more value from processing".
He also points out that such positive outcomes depend on reforms in China (improved market access for African imports) and in sub-Saharan Africa (enhanced local competitiveness, improved governance, flexible labour markets, and upgraded arteries of commerce).
China supplies electronic goods, machinery, motorcycles, t-shirts, other clothing, footwear, and a host of additional low-value consumer items.
China is also pioneering the establishment of Special Economic Zones, or export processing zones, throughout Sub-Saharan Africa. The African goal is to attract foreign direct investment to the zones already established or contemplated in Kenya, Mauritius, Nigeria, and Zambia. In 2008, the Zambian zone was the furthest along, with construction underway.
The contemplated zones follow China's own developmental model. In Africa, the existing and contemplated zones presume customers duty waivers, preferential tax rates, flexible management, and access to productive labour, whether local or Chinese (the latter with work permits). These zones are intended to enable Chinese firms to compete well with non-Chinese operations and to avoid "Made in China" labels and still accrue business and profits. More than 800 state-owned Chinese enterprises have set up operations in Africa.
Therefore, these Chinese initiatives potentially may uplift Africa's economic prospects and its GDP per capita faster and more completely than actions by other trading and investing partners, or by international lending organisations.
The Chinese also make zer0-interest loans, offer low-interest concessional loans, and provide outright grants for ministerial office buildings, cultural centres, stadia, schools, hospitals, roads, bridges, and agricultural projects. As Brautigam suggests "China's aid is supposed to be based on equality, mutual benefit, and respect for the sovereignty of the host".
As Brautigam makes clear, China provides no official figures for the amounts of its "aid". There is confusion about what constitutes Chinese official assistance (p. 8).
China's emergence as a major credit has created "a wave of new debt" partially offset by the debts that China has forgiven in some African countries (p. 9).
Which ones?
Since 2000, among other African countries, Zambia have received Chinese weapons in reasonable quantities, particularly in aircraft and medical expertise for Zambia (p. 9-10).
Chinese military and security co-operation is intended primarily to advance China's economic interests and its overwhelming concern for unfettered access to Africa's abundant raw materials. China will do whatever it can, despite criticism from the West about propping up despots and strengthening antidemocratic tendencies (p. 10).
Slightly bias.
"African people are [for the first time] perceived primarily as consumers lends them a degree of economic agency that was absent previously." However, Africans worry that Chinese firms will cut corners on quality, ignore labour or environmental concerns, and produce shoddy results.
The sourcing of supplies from China, rather than from within Africa, has already aroused African anger and concern. For example, protest movements in Zambia in 2007 (p. 10). The flood of cheap goods, especially textiles, and apparel, has undermined and bankrupted local industries, putting hundreds of thousands of Africans out of work (p. 11).
Add a case study from Zambia.
The Chinese are creating anxiety and taking customers from African rivals.
Rupp quotes a Zambian finance minister's lament about the flood of low-paid, culturally isolated, job-depriving workers from China. China thinks its own workers are more efficient and more trustworthy (p. 11).
The Chinese believe that "Western-style democratic theory simply isn't suited to African conditions" (p. 11). China is an authoritarian regime, and its foreign as well as its domestic policies emanate from that immutable fact (p. 12).
China is hardly immune to outside criticism (p. 14). For Zambia, they suggest that the possibility that China sponsors unsafe and inhumane conditions at the Chambishi mine should be regarded as a case of the nonapplication of domestic labour laws, not as China condoning human rights abuses. Anyway, they ask, are conditions in Chinese- run mines any worse than in mines run by others?
Brown and Sriram accept that Chinese behavior and public stances legitimize human rights abuses and undemocratic practices “under the guise of state sovereignty and ‘non-interference.’”Chinese policy and actions undermine human rights, good governance, transparency, and accountability as defined by the African Union.
There is little technology transfer, little capacity building, and little attention given to good governance and effective institutions.
China’s incursion into Africa neo-colonial? Can its activity in Africa be tarred with the pejorative label “colonial?” (p. 15).
China is not attempting to “civilize” Africa (p. 16).
Rupp's careful and thoughtful analysis of the colonial question argues that Chinese involvement in Africa is neither colonial nor neo-colonial. China "is strategically leveraging structural characteristics of African political and economic systems that advance the interests of the state – both the Chinese state and African states – often at the expense of ordinary African people. As a result of the imbalance in economic power between China and individual African states, these relations echo the dependency typical of colonial relations.
1. China's fundamental respect for the sovereignty 2. China's active nurturing of relations with African states in international fora 3. China's interest in Africa people as consumers rather labourers suggest that China and Africa are engaging in postcolonial relations of inter-dependency, however economically imbalanced these relations may be (p. 16). 
Moreover, the social space between ordinary Africans and Chinese is taut; "social relations… are marked by a tension between mutual admiration and mutual loathing."
"African and Chinese people do not often or intimately interact." (p. 16).
Africans welcome China's lack of conditionality, lack of hectoring, lack of preaching and instruction, and reduced hypocrisy; Chinese aid – comes without immediately obvious strings (the Taiwanese question aside) (p. 17).
China is transforming Africa, for good and ill (p. 18).
Africa surely needs well articulated policies regarding the importation of Chinese labourers, special taxation privileges or not for Chinese firms (many are state owned), new tariffs tailored to increase trade, and protection or not for domestically produced goods. Without concerted African ground rules and improved governance at home, China will continue to be opportunistic, exploiting weaker nation-states in its quest for resources and asserting its own overweening economic leverage with little consideration for African values and needs. If Africans are to stand on equal footing with Chinese entrepreneurs, they need to join forces and channel Chinese energies and capital in directions that benefit Africa as much as they benefit China. Only by fashioning such a collective response can Africans throughout the continent turn China’s massive and multifaceted drive into Africa to their sustainable best advantage (p. 18).
submitted by minimalistcookie to China [link] [comments]


2020.08.31 18:35 CheebsHasReturned Fantasy Booking The NXT Championship After The Vacancy By Kross Part I

Karrion Kross is the new NXT Champion! Uh. After Keith Lee captured the big gold belt at the Great American Bash he then proceeded to drop it to the new monster heel in town Karrion Kross in the main event of Tak30ver. Kross then blew out his shoulder in a similar fashion to Finn Balor in 2016 leaving us with quite the dilemma.
NXT:
Triple H hits the ring on the NXT after Takeover to inform us that indeed Kross has tore his shoulder. He will likely be gone for a long time and thus will have to vacate the title. He proposes a tournament, not unlike the Cruiserweight tournament earlier on in the year, to crown a new NXT Champion at Takeover Judgement Day! (Listen I want WarGames too but it's pretty unsafe to have that many people in such a small area and the pop when it returns in a year or two will be huge.)
He says that there will be eight men from NXT with a couple surprises from RAW with the men involved being split into two groups of five where each man in Group A faces each other once and each man in Group B faces each other once. The tournament will take place over the next five weeks and will culminate with the winner of Group A and Group B slugging it out for the NXT Championship at Takeover! He then explains that you get two points for a win, one point for a draw and zero for a loss before proclaiming that the tournament will take place next week with a handful of qualifiers tonight.
Bronson Reed vs Kushida
Cameron Grimes vs Killian Dain
Timothy Thatcher vs Ridge Holland
Raw:
Mustafa Ali vs Ricochet
Kevin Owens vs Dolph Ziggler
The final groups are revealed on Twitter before NXT:
Group A Group B
Adam Cole Bronson Reed
Kevin Owens Cameron Grimes
Mustafa Ali Finn Balor
Timothy Thatcher Johnny Gargano
Tommaso Ciampa Roderick Strong
This leaves Damian Priest guys like Arturo Ruas, Danny Burch, Dexter Lumis (if he heals up in time), Isaiah Swerve Scott, Killian Dain, Kushida, Oney Lorcan, Ridge Holland and (if found innocent) Velveteen Dream as possible opponents on NXT and Takeover. I personally would probably do Priest vs Arturo and Holland in mini TV feuds before having Priest vs Kushida at Takeover, but to each their own.
NXT 9/2/2020
Lineup:
Adam Cole vs Kevin Owens
Mustafa Ali vs Timothy Thatcher
Bronson Reed vs Cameron Grimes
Finn Balor vs Johnny Gargano
Women's segment/match
NA Title match/segment
Finn Balor vs Johnny Gargano
These two men match each other technically early before Balor starts to overpower Johnny. Gargano fights back hitting a springboard moonasult to the outside and double knees to the back of the head. Balor blocks a superkick and lands a Slingblade for a two. He looks for Bloody Sunday, but Johnny rolls him up for two before a superkick gives way to a similar result. Johnny misses a superkick with the DIY taunt and gets caught with a double stomp to the chest. A Bloody Sunday and Coup De Grace to the back of the head follow giving Balor the definitive victory.
Finn Balor (2) def. Johnny Gargano (0) (16:37)
Mustafa Ali vs Timothy Thatcher
Thatcher vows to break Ali's spirit before this match to prove no man can withstand his submissions. Ali and Timothy tell a beautifully weaved story as Thatcher beats the hell out of Mustafa to start flinging him into the stairs, the barricade and anything else he can get his hands on. Ali begins to mount a comeback off the back of a Tope Con Hilo, but Thatcher cuts it off with nasty chops and scathing elbows. Ali looks for a rolling facebuster and gets caught with a powerbomb. When he kicks out, Thatcher locks The Walls Of Jericho in. He transitions into a crossface, fujiwara armbar and ankle lock before Ali is able to escape. Timothy his a shinbreaker on the apron, targeting the legs of Ali. Mustafa finds an opening after connecting with a rolling neckbreaker. Thatcher kicks out and Mustafa climbs for 054° but Tim catches him with knees before locking a Sharpshooter. He stomps on the back of the neck when Mustafa reaches the ropes. He locks a surfboard before finally transitioning into a dragon sleeper and Ali fades after refusing to submit, giving Thatcher the win albeit not the way he wanted.
Timothy Thatcher (2) def. Mustafa Ali (0) (18:11)
Bronson Reed vs Cameron Grimes
Grimes tries to attack before the bell, but Reed makes him pay. Grimes taunts Reed from the outside and as Bronson goes to exit Cameron attacks the leg. He targets the knee throughout the match chopping Reed down to size. He stops all of Reed's comebacks with a well placed kick to the knee. That is until a harrowing running crossbody by Bronson gets him a nearfall. Grimes is sent off the ropes and tries for the Cave In, but Bronson catches him and plants him with a last gasp powerbomb before collapsing. Grimes rolls out before he can cover. When Reed goes to chase Cameron extinguishes Bronson's fire back inside with a dropkick. Reed looks for another crossbody and gets planted with a Moonsault Slam showing the strength and adrenaline in Cameron. Reed gets back up but Grimes ducks all his offense running circles around Bronson before putting him out of his misery with a thunderous Cave In for the W. Grimes has used his strategy to put down the bigger Bronson Reed.
Cameron Grimes (2) def. Bronson Reed (0) (13:29)
Adam Cole vs Kevin Owens
Cole and KO have a lot of history and the commentary team reminds us of that in our main event. The two immediately are on each other like brown on toast. They fight to the outside where Kevin lets his agression out. Once back in Cile targets the head and neck with superkicks, his kneecap brainbuster, and that weird rope hung piledriver that looks like it...should probably not be allowed? Adam always fails to hit the Panama Sunrise though with Kevin reversing with a boot and a DDT and once with a superkick. A pop-up powerbomb gets Owens a two and a missed frogsplash wields the same outcome for Cole. Adam and Owens trade moves before a Stunner is shoved away and Adam hits a lungblower. Cole connects with the last shot, but this is about pride now. Showing that he can. He climbs and finally connects with Panama Sunrise for the 1, 2, 3.
Adam Cole (2) def. Kevin Owens (0) (20:16)
NXT, 9/9/2020
Adam Cole vs Tommaso Ciampa
Kevin Owens vs Mustafa Ali
Bronson Reed vs Roderick Strong
Cameron Grimes vs Finn Balor
Women's match/segment
NA Title match/segment
Kevin Owens vs Mustafa Ali
Ali outwrestles Owens early using his fast paced athleticism to his advantage. A nasty clothesline from a fed up Owens turns the tides. A fisherman suplex by Owens garners a two count. A swanton connects, but Ali fights out. Owens tries for a pop-up powerbomb and Ali reverses with a huracanrana. A rolling neckbreaker connects and Mustafa climbs, trying for 054° KO gets the knees up and nails a superkick before dragging up Mustafa for a rage bred stunner netting KO the victory. Ali sits in the middle of the ring, disappointed in himself.
Kevin Owens (2) def. Mustafa Ali (0) (14:26)
Cameron Grimes vs Finn Balor
The match starts with Cameron being his usual scummy self as he dips in and out of the ring avoiding Balor. He catches Finn as he enters with a dropkick turning the tables in his favor. A missed baseball slide from Grimes opens the door for a slingblade on the outside. Balor looks for 1916, but Grimes escapes and connects with a Twist Of Fate honoring his trainer, Matt Hardy. It gets a close count before Balor inevitably battles back. He grounds Grimes, littering him with stomps. He corners him and charges in for a shotgun dropkick but CAVE IN! OUT OF NOWHERE! He drags up Finn and hits Gods Last Gift/fisherman buster for a near fall. He frantically grabs at Finn hitting a suplex into a catch powerbomb for another two. Cameron is beside himself and stalks for another Cave In which is avoided as Finn hits a Pele Kick before connecting with a desperation corner dropkick and Coup De Grace to the back of the head for a hard fought victory. Balor quickly exits the ring at the bell, glad to have escaped the scrappy Cameron Grimes.
Finn Balor (4) def. Cameron Grimes (2) (15:47)
Bronson Reed vs Roderick Strong
Reed dominates early before he starts showing signs of weakness in his taped leg. Roddy zeroes in on it locking knee bars, figure fours and ankle locks while stomping away at the limp limb. A Claymore/Rocket Kick gets Roderick a near fall. Reed tries to mount a second wind landing vicious clothesline, uppercuts and elbows but Roderick cuts him off by hitting a chop block to the knee. A second Claymore followed by an impressive End Of Heartache gets Roderick the win. Questions are raised about Bronson's status going forward.
Roderick Strong (2) def. Bronson Reed (0) (14:12)
Adam Cole vs Tommaso Ciampa
The match starts at a traditional, leveled pace with the two men reversing each others maneuvers. A panama sunrise gets caught into an air raid crash. A kneecap brainbuster attempt gets shoved away and Ciampa connects with a bicycle knee. The match gets more physical when Tommaso lands a corner knee strike and gets two. He tosses Cole out and when he tries to grab him, Cole swats him away and sticks a leaping enziguri. Adam goes to reenter and Ciampa kicks the rope into Adam's Coals. A hanging DDT follows for a near fall. Ciampa loses his temper and tries for a powerbomb, but Cole slips out and hits a canadian destroyer. He looks for Last Shot which is ducked and Ciampa connects with Fairytale Ending. He thinks back to goldie, his neck and knee injuries, how Cole was the man he failed to capture the title against. Instead of immediately pinning he grabs onto the wrist and locks a Fujiwara Armbar or GoldieLockTM. Adam, not wanting to risk injury, taps soon after.
Tommaso Ciampa (2) def. Adam Cole (2) (17:35)
NXT, 9/16/2020
Adam Cole vs Mustafa Ali
Timothy Thatcher vs Tommaso Ciampa
Johnny Gargano vs Roderick Strong
Bronson Reed vs Finn Balor
Women's match/segment
NA Title match/segment
Johnny Gargano vs Roderick Strong
Gargano and Strong start with grapples and chain wrestling before a series of roll-ups nearly affords Johnny the early win. Strong takes control with a leaping knee strike to a charging Gargano. Roddy works away on Johnny in the corner blasting him with chops before setting him up top. A failed superplex attempt allows Johnny to escape before a failed sunset flip attempt leads to Johnny hitting a superkick to the knee tangling Roddy in the turnbuckles. Roderick is left reeling on the outside while a smug Gargano beckons him back in. A sequence of ducked running moves as the men leapfrog over each other ends in a rare dropkick from Strong for two. Roderick tosses Johnny outside hitting a suplex on the padded concrete. He tries to send Gargano back in only for Johnny to slide through, duck a lariat and roll Roderick onto his knees for a rolling kick to the temple. Roderick is sent back in, but catches a slingshot spear for a hanging DDT. A rocket kick follows for a near fall. Strong tries for End Of Heartache and Johnny reverses with a spike DDT. Gargano recovers in the corner as Strong, his brain rewired, charges in to a dropkick to the knee sending him into the turnbuckle. Johnny slithers to the outside and a slingshot DDT follows for a near fall. Gargano hits a superkick to a kneeling Strong and goes to the corner for the DIY taunt, but Strong passes out. Johnny puts his foot under the chin bringing Roderick back up. A superkick attempt by Johnny is reversed into an Ankle Lock! Roderick drags Johnny into the center of the ring and sinks into a knee bar. Johnny tries to make it to the ropes, coming fingertips away before Roddy rolls him back into the middle. Johnny has little choice but to tap giving a desperate Strong the well deserved victory leaving a flustered and angry Johnny Gargano behind.
Roderick Strong (4) def. Johnny Gargano (0) (16:31)
Timothy Thatcher vs Tommaso Ciampa
Tommaso gives "the new kid" a free shot and Tim takes it knocking Ciampa on his ass and pummeling him with chops to the face until the ref backs him up. Timothy being a submission brute wears away at the neck and knee hitting a surfboard/OG curb stomp to the head. He twists away at the neck and hits brainbusters. He sets Ciampa's head up against the turnbuckles and stands on the neck laughing at the agony of Ciampa. He stomps on the knee and pulls a card out of Brock's deck tucking the leg behind his head and wringing away lifting Ciampa off the ground. Tommaso begins to fire back after being booted out of the ring and mocked. He thinks back to another new kid, Karrion Kross. The man who took him out at Takeover. The man who embarrassed him. Ciampa gets a predatory look in his eye and marches back in nailing Timothy with right hooks. A buckle bomb connects from a weak kneed Ciampa who collapses afterwards in white hot pain. He drags up Thatcher for Fairytale Ending but Tim escapes landing a russian leg sweep before tagging Ciampa with repeated headbutts and elbows to the shoulder blade. He then locks onto the wrist and locks a fujiwara armbar adding insult to injury. Ciampa slips to the ropes after over a minute of torture. Thatcher slaps away at a kneeling Ciampa and as Timothy goes to run the ropes, Ciampa gets to his feet and clocks him with a bicycle knee sending both men down. Ciampa gets up clutching his knee and drags Timothy into Fairytale Ending position before opting to hit a DDT and creep over to the arm. He cackles as the GoldieLockTM is applied and Thatcher, despite his pride, hits his breaking point tapping out. Ciampa holds on for a bit after the bell forcing refs to get him off. It's a slippery slope for Ciampa as one visit to your old ways can start the tsunami of habits you swore you kicked. The crowd chants psycho killer only egging on Ciampa in his quest for Goldie.
Tommaso Ciampa (4) def. Timothy Thatcher (2) (13:27)
Bronson Reed vs Finn Balor
Reed limps through the curtain and tries to manhandle Balor early before Finn starts teeing off on the leg. Bronson plows through Finn with a lariat and squashes him with a running senton. He tries for a suplex on one leg, but Balor escapes and executes a chop block to the knee. A running basement dropkick follows and Bronson exits the ring. Balor trails behind and sends him face first into the steps and apron. He stomps on the head on the apron. A baseball slide clocks an already unsteady Reed. Bronson tries to fight back with elbows and forearms but charges right into a thunderous slingblade. Balor shoves the dead weight of Bronson into the ring before climbing for a missed coup de grace. Reed crashes into Balor with a running crossbody for a two. Bronson gets him on the shoulders for a samoan drop and Balor escapes hooking onto the head and connecting with an elbow drop to the heart. Two slingblades from different sides of the ring have Bronson in a bad way. Balor tries for a shotgun dropkick but Reed pounces him halfway through his trot knocking Balor off his feet. Reed unleashes a flurry of stinging strikes rattling Balor. A dropkick to a running Reed slows his momentum. Balor tries for Bloody Sunday but Reed rolls him up for a nearfall. Bronson gets him into Alabama slam position and Balor slips out taking out the knee before hitting a double stomp to the spine. Balor ascends once more for Coup De Grace. Bronson smashes into the ropes knocking Finn's Balors into the steel connector between the turnbuckle and post. He climbs and gets Balor in Alabama slam position again which Balor once more avoids. Bronson boots him away and lands a diving crossbody. A spinning forearm to the back of the head knocks Balor out cold. Bronson, hobbled, scoops Balor up and plants him with a gnarly Inverted Vertebreaker! he covers a dazed Balor for a surprising three second tan.
Bronson Reed (2) def. Finn Balor (4) (13:08)
Adam Cole vs Mustafa Ali
Ali uses his high-flying prowess to upset Cole in the beginning stages. A rolling Ali gets clocked with a superkick giving Adam the edge. Adam suffocates Mustafa with headlocks and mudhole stomps. He tries for a kneecap brainbuster which Mustafa escapes before trying for a roll-up for two. Adam downs him with a Bicycle Kick. Cole gets him in a firemans carry and Ali adjusts into electric chair position stunning Adam with a reverse frankensteiner. A rolling shoulder thrust in the corner is followed by a handstand huracanrana. Cole escapes to the outside but is afforded no breathing room as Mustafa lays him out with three consecutive dives. A Tope Con Hilo, a suicide dive and a baseball slide DDT. Ali sends him back in and Cole possums him into a fireman's carry. Tries for ushigoroshi and Mustafa lands on his feet! Cole furrowing his brows, charges right into a spanish fly! Just a two count for the scrappy Mustafa Ali. Cole rolling to the apron and Mustafa ascends. 450 APRON SPLASH! COLE MOVES! ALI SMACKS INTO THE DAMN APRON! Superkick to the back of the head by Cole and Ali is sent back in. One, Two, HAND ON THE ROPE! Cole gets him up top and tries for an outside superplex. Ali fighting back with lefts and rights. Kick between the eyes from Ali. SPRINGBOARD SPANISH FLY FROM THE HEART AND SOUL! ONE, TWO, NEAR FALL! Ali desperately up top, Fish and O'Reilly on the apron, Ali wipes them out and hits a tope con hilo on both, back up, 450 Splash, Cole avoids, LAST SHOT! Adam drags Ali up and into position. PANAMA SUNRISE! Tucking the arms in and hooking the legs! One! Two! Three! Cole has survived Mustafa Ali. Ali is left drained and hurt in the center of the ring for a third week as Cole celebrates with Kyle and Bobby on the ramp.
Adam Cole (4) def. Mustafa Ali (0) (16:24)
NXT, 9/23/2020
Adam Cole vs Timothy Thatcher
Kevin Owens vs Tommaso Ciampa
Bronson Reed vs Johnny Gargano
Cameron Grimes vs Roderick Strong
Women's match/segment
NA Title match/segment
Cameron Grimes vs Roderick Strong
Grimes tries to avoid Roddy's technical ability by hiding behind the ropes and ref. Roderick finally starts unloading with body shots and as he hits the ropes, Cameron scoops him up for his Swinging Side Slam but Roddy nails him with a DDT reversal. Strong lying in wait for an Olympic Slam! Cover for a two count and now Roderick targets the legs locking in a Strong Hold/Walls Of Jericho. Cameron trying to crawl desperately to the ropes, Grimes finally reaches and Strong uses every second of the five count. Roddy marches over and Grimes slips under and behind Roddy. Chop block to the knee. Rolling to where he's standing in front of Strong with his back turned. MOONSAULT GERMAN SUPLEX with a bridge pin! A close call follows and Roddy pulls himself up, weakly, in the corner. He suckers Cameron into a boot to the mid-section. Powerbomb position and Cameron escapes. Superman Forearm is ducked and Grimes is shoved into the ropes. Claymore/Rocket Kick by Roderick turns Grimes inside out. Strong drags up Grimes for the Gibson Driver which is basically a double underhook powerbomb. Grimes ranas out of it for a two. Strong running into a Moonsault Slam from The Carolina Caveman! Grimes stalking for a Cave In. Roddy catches him mid move into a Strong Hold! Grimes twisting out of the submission. Superman Forearm! Lariat by Strong! End Of Hearteache! Grimes escapes! CAVE IN! ONE! TWO! THREE! Grimes slides out of the ring hand and hat held high as he stomps to a four point total.
Cameron Grimes (4) def. Roderick Strong (4) (14:19)
Adam Cole vs Timothy Thatcher
Thatcher has Cole retreating early and looks to go out of his comfort zone with a baseball slide. Adam catches him and hooks onto the waste. Dragging Thatcher out of the ring he looks for a wheelbarrow german but Tim with a bulldog reversal. Cole rolling back in clutching his nose and Thatcher hooks on for a sleeper hold, Adam beginning to choke. The bigger Tim leaps onto the back intensifying the pressure. Adam collapses into a backpack stunner to escape. Thatcher with a running european uppercut to floor Adam. Timothy going to the top rope for a rare high-flying maneuver. Flying Headbutt! Cole out of the way! Superkick, Thatcher bouncing off the ropes, StraightJacket German Suplex/Florida Keys with a bridge pin. A near fall is all it gets him. Cole dragging up Timothy. Runs the ropes for a Leaping Shining Wizard which Timothy ducks. Thatcher catches a charging Cole in a Cross Armbar takedown with a submission at the end. Cole scrambling to make it to the ropes, forcing separation. Thatcher now charging in, but popped up and over onto the apron. Cole with a SLINGSHOT LUNGBLOWER ON THE APRON! Cole clutching his lumbar, he may have hurt himself as well. Adam sends Tim back in and goes to the middle turnbuckle. Panama Sunrise reversed with a back body drop. Thatcher hooks onto the wrist for a Fujiwara Armbar. The same move Cole tapped out to two weeks ago. O'Reilly and Fish are here! IMPERIUM clearing them out! Cole has nowhere to go and no choice but to tap out. Aichner and Barthel approach the ring after and offer Thatcher an Imperium shirt ahead of his showdown with Kevin Owens next week.
Timothy Thatcher (4) def. Adam Cole (4) (15:31)
Bronson Reed vs Johnny Gargano
Reed's knee at this point is heavily injured and he is recommended by trainers not to fight in this match. He defies their orders in order to have a chance at his dream of becoming NXT Champion. Johnny targets the leg early and Bronson looks to end things trying for a rear naked choke. Gargano rolls through for a two count when Bronson tries to take him to the ground. Reed charges in and Johnny hops to the outside causing Reed to crash into the turnbuckles. A hanging soccer kick from Gargano opens up the door for a Slingshot DDT. Reed gets the shoulder up via an aggressive kickout at one. Bronson makes it to the ropes and Johnny runs in. Reed sends him to the apron. Johnny hangs up the back and arms on the ropes. Slingshot Spear into a knee lift by Reed. Running Senton to the spine of Gargano. The 330+ pounder crushing Johnny. Cover for a close two count. Bronson drags up Gargano and hooks under the arms for a Death Drop Driver (hook under the arms Master Lock style, popup, into a german suplex) but Gargano sinks into a headlock halfway through and pokes the eye of Reed. Gargano prepping himself. What the hell is he thinking? Johnny struggling, can't quite. Forearm. Forearm. Gargano yet again...JOHNNY GARGANO LIFTING BRONSON UP! TWO SECONDS BEFORE HE SEND HIM PLUMMETING DOWN WITH AN AIR RAID CRASH ON REED! COVER! ONE! TWO! THR- What a false finish! A dazed look in the eye as Gargano clutches his back and abdomen after that impressive feat of superhuman strength. Gargano does the DIY pose in the corner. Superkick gets ducked and Reed looks for a brainbuster on one good knee! A near fall follows leaving Reed exhausted and wonder what it's gonna take. With his last bit of fuel in the tank he goes to the high rent district and looks to fly. Diving Body Splash by Reed! Gargano rolls out of the way. Johnny pouncing in with an opportunistic Garga-NO Escape! Reed holding on. Biting his fist. And eventually inevitably submitting to Johnny Gargano. Doctors have to help Reed to the back afterwards.
Johnny Gargano (2) def. Bronson Reed (2) (12:32)
Kevin Owens vs Tommaso Ciampa
Both men being brawlers with nothing to lose and everything to gain go to battle one on one for the first time in over six years. Heavy hits early as the fight spills to the outside. The men brawl all over ringside before returning to the squared circle. Ciampa tries for the Psycho Cutter (Neckbreaker positioning turned into a cutter at the last monent) but Owens escapes shoving him away and flooring him with a superkick. KO sees the opportunity and climbs to the top for a Swanton Bomb, but Ciampa rolls out of the way as Owens meets the mat. Ciampa, showing his strength, hoists up Owens for a Powerbomb into the knees. Near fall for Tommaso who seems to be letting his emotions get the better of him. Ciampa clotheslining Owens to the apron. Owens tries for a shoulder thrust but gets caught in DDT position. Owens scraps out and drags the arm over the ropes before hitting a hanging DDT of his own on the apron. He goes to the top and executes a death defying frog splash. Ciampa barely survives the count and Owens is forced to go back to the drawing board. Ciampa sent off the ropes; pop-up powerbomb but Ciampa ends up behind KO. Boot to the midsection and Ciampa takes control. Owens set up top as Tommaso exits onto the apron. He begins to climb before Owens begins fighting back with elbows and headbutts. KO tries for a fisherman superplex but Ciampa escapes and hits a sunset flip. Owens refusing to break his grip on the turnbuckle. Ciampa finally pries him away, Powerbomb into the knees for a second time. Cover for a call as close as mine to the suicide hotline. Ciampa drags him up thinking Fairytale Ending, but the sloppiness of a frenzied Ciampa allows KO to escape for a Stone Cold Stunner. Cover by Owens, One, Two, Three. After the match Ciampa sits in the corner talking to himself when Kevin offers him a handshake. Ciampa slaps away the hand and gets in the face of Owens. Ciampa goes to the back but not before trashing the announce desk.
Kevin Owens (4) def. Tommaso Ciampa (4) (15:29)
NXT, 9/30/2020
Kevin Owens vs Timothy Thatcher
Mustafa Ali vs Tommaso Ciampa
Cameron Grimes vs Johnny Gargano
Finn Balor vs Roderick Strong
Women's match/segment
NA Title match/segment
Cameron Grimes vs Johnny Gargano
The match starts fast paced and barely slows down as Cameron has Johnny reeling on the outside. Springboard Moonsault by Grimes misses as Gargano gets back in. Cameron back to his feet just in time to eat a suicide dive into the plastic barrier. Grimes sent back in as Johnny climbs to the middle turnbuckle. Tornado Flatliner attempt, however, Grimes catches him and maneuvers the arm into position for a suplex into a catch powerbomb! One, Two, Deadlift Sitout Powerbomb by Grimes! One, Two, near fall over Gargano. Cameron drags up Johnny thinking roundhouse which gets ducked, Cameron tries for a superkick and Johnny rolls out of the way before scooping up Grimes for a vicious lawn dart into the middle turnbuckle. Cameron rolling onto the apron and Johnny stalks. Slingshot Apron DDT and Grimes shoves him away. DROPKICK ON THE APRON BY GRIMES! Johnny sent back in and Cameron closes in. Cave In! Johnny rolls out of the way. Superkick by Johnny and now taking Cameron to the floor to sinch a Garga-NO Escape! Grimes holding on but eventually succumbs to the loss of air.
Johnny Gargano (4) def. Cameron Grimes (4) (10:54)
Kevin Owens vs Timothy Thatcher
Owens and Thatcher are equally skilled at brawling while Tim has a bit of a technical ability advantage on him. Timothy scraps with KO and executes a takedown early before trying for a Bow And Arrow submission. Owens is able to escape into a pinfall and Tim gets his shoulders up quickly. Owens sends him back down with a lariat. Kevin looks to capitalize hoisting the 245lb Timothy onto his shoulders in torture rack position before trying to spin him off but Tim lands on his knees and quickly attacks the leg before applying the single leg Boston Crab. Thatcher works the knee for as long as allowed before Owens reaches the ropes. Thatcher drags up Kevin littering him with uppercuts and forearms before catching a right hand from Owens and trying to sinch a Kimura Lock. Thatcher locks it in and desperately tries to get Kevin on the ground. Owens is able to escape under the arm and break free from the submission before hitting a boot to the midsection and a Kneecap Neckbreaker Thatcher crawls to the corner and Owens unloads with mudhole stomps before charging in for a cannonball! Thatcher avoids before grabbing onto the leg and applying the Stretch MuffleBrock Lock on Owens leg. Eventually the strain on Tim's neck gets to be too much and he releases the old but not before lifting Owens off the ground inflicting as much damage to the knee as possible. Timothy now stomping on the shoulder and elbow and wrist several times before going for the Fujiwara Armbar! Owens struggles and considers submission before hooking on with his free arm into a roll-up for two. A Stunner follows causing Owens to grab his arm in pain. Even still he's able to cover for the one, two, three. Tim Thatcher accepts Imperium's offer backstage.
Kevin Owens (6) def. Timothy Thatcher (4) (13:46)
Mustafa Ali vs Tommaso Ciampa
The story here is Ali has yet to get a win in the tournament whether it be due to passing out or interference or it just not being his night, Mustafa cannot win the title now but is fighting against a man who still can. Tommaso Ciampa needs to defeat Ali here to have a chance to qualify for Takeover. Ciampa, realizing Ali's aerial ability tries to take out the legs early with a Cloverleaf variation, but Ali rolls forward smashing Tommaso into the turnbuckles. Ciampa goes to the outside clutching his neck when Ali executes a dazzling Springboard Tope Con Hilo! Mustafa tosses Ciampa back in and looks to follow up from behind. Reverse Frankensteiner but Ciampa clutches on to the ropes causing Ali to slip off. A running knee strike to a kneeling Ali gets a two count. Ciampa drags him up into Air Raid Crash position which is reversed into a roll-up for a near fall. Ali ducks the clothesline attempt and connects with a Springboard Tornado DDT further damaging the bad neck of Ciampa. When thag only gets a two count Ali charges off the ropes for a Tilt-A-Whirl DDT but Ciampa tosses him off the shoulder and looks for a backfist which Mustafa ducks. Ali looks for a springboard and Ciampa is close behind tossing him off the ropes with a nasty german suplex. Ciampa marches over hooking onto the waist and connecting with another german suplex, a second and a third all while maintaining waist control. Ciampa looks for Fairytale Ending and Ali hooks onto the head for a huracanrana into the turnbuckles. Ali climbs seeing the opening and sticks a 054° for the surprise three count. Ali has finally gotten a big win, proving that he can do it. Ciampa lounges in the corner, beside himself as he frantically whispers to nobody. Ali is celebrating when Ciampa blasts him from behind. Ciampa with a powerbomb into the knees. Fairytale Ending! and now a Fujiwara Armbar applied! Ali refusing to tap as Ciampa wrenches away before snapping the arm. Ciampa exits backstage to "Psycho Killer" chants before reemerging with a table! He gets Ali on the apron and hits a huge powerbomb through the wooden desk! Ali lies broken as Ciampa's dreams are dashed. He'll never get Goldie back now...unless.
Mustafa Ali (2) def. Tommaso Ciampa (4) (15:08)
Finn Balor vs Roderick Strong
It comes down to this. Both men have four points and the winner of this match will face Kevin Owens at Takeover WarGames for the NXT Championship. One man that originated in ROH, one in New Japan. They clash one on one for the first time ever right now. They grapple early creating a sequence consisting of wristlocks, headlocks and waistlocks alike. Roddy eventually has a double underhook and tries for a half nelson backbreaker which Balor arm drags out of before planting Roddy with a scintillating slingblade. Roderick rolls to the outside and Balor looks to follow up with a rare Tope Con Hilo. After Roderick avoids and Balor crashes and burns Strong scoops him up for a fireman's carry double knee gutbuster on the outside. Roderick returns to the ring and gloats over a fallen Finn Balor. As Finn tries to drag himself up on the apron, Roderick exits to meet him. He gets him in torture rack position and nears the steel post. Finn fights back with elbows. He hooks onto the head and lands a 1916 from the apron to the floor! Both men narrowly beat the count of ten. Balor sets Roddy in the corner and lands a few running knife edge chops as he whips Strong into various edges of the ring. Strong is set up top and Balor climbs thinking Avalanche Bloody Sunday. Roddy fights back with blows to the kidneys before hooking on for an AVALANCHE OLYMPIC SLAM! COVER FOR THE ONE, TWO, NEAR FALL! Roddy pounding the mat in utter frustration. Strong irish whips Balor into the corner and charges in with a leaping knee strike before hooking on for a belly to back facebuster Balor hangs on for an arm drag and hooks on for Bloody Sunday! He covers and gets a three count but as the ref counts three he notices Roderick's foot touching the rope (Ala Seth/Neville) stopping his decision. Balor starts lashing out at the ref before dragging up Roddy for another Bloody Sunday which Roddy reverses into a close roll-up. Roderick grabs Balor to connect with a cradle backbreaker. He desperately drags up an injured Balor for End Of Heartache which Balor turns into a DDT. Balor climbs hitting a Coup De Grace to the back of the skull and then one to the stomach affording him the golden Takeover ticket.
Finn Balor (6) def. Roderick Strong (4) (18:27)
submitted by CheebsHasReturned to FBcompany [link] [comments]


2020.08.31 02:17 CheebsHasReturned Fantasy ReBooking The NXT Championship After Kross's Vacancy Part I

Karrion Kross is the new NXT Champion! Uh. After Keith Lee captured the big gold belt at the Great American Bash he then proceeded to drop it to the new monster heel in town Karrion Kross in the main event of Tak30ver. Kross then blew out his shoulder in a similar fashion to Finn Balor in 2016 leaving us with quite the dilemma.
NXT:
Triple H hits the ring on the NXT after Takeover to inform us that indeed Kross has tore his shoulder. He will likely be gone for a long time and thus will have to vacate the title. He proposes a tournament, not unlike the Cruiserweight tournament earlier on in the year, to crown a new NXT Champion at Takeover Judgement Day! (Listen I want WarGames too but it's pretty unsafe to have that many people in such a small area and the pop when it returns in a year or two will be huge.)
He says that there will be eight men from NXT with a couple surprises from RAW with the men involved being split into two groups of five where each man in Group A faces each other once and each man in Group B faces each other once. The tournament will take place over the next five weeks and will culminate with the winner of Group A and Group B slugging it out for the NXT Championship at Takeover! He then explains that you get two points for a win, one point for a draw and zero for a loss before proclaiming that the tournament will take place next week with a handful of qualifiers tonight.
Bronson Reed vs Kushida
Cameron Grimes vs Killian Dain
Timothy Thatcher vs Ridge Holland
Raw:
Mustafa Ali vs Ricochet
Kevin Owens vs Dolph Ziggler
The final groups are revealed on Twitter before NXT:
Group A Group B
Adam Cole Bronson Reed
Kevin Owens Cameron Grimes
Mustafa Ali Finn Balor
Timothy Thatcher Johnny Gargano
Tommaso Ciampa Roderick Strong
This leaves Damian Priest guys like Arturo Ruas, Danny Burch, Dexter Lumis (if he heals up in time), Isaiah Swerve Scott, Killian Dain, Kushida, Oney Lorcan, Ridge Holland and (if found innocent) Velveteen Dream as possible opponents on NXT and Takeover. I personally would probably do Priest vs Arturo and Holland in mini TV feuds before having Priest vs Kushida at Takeover, but to each their own.
NXT 9/2/2020
Lineup:
Adam Cole vs Kevin Owens
Mustafa Ali vs Timothy Thatcher
Bronson Reed vs Cameron Grimes
Finn Balor vs Johnny Gargano
Women's segment/match
NA Title match/segment
Finn Balor vs Johnny Gargano
These two men match each other technically early before Balor starts to overpower Johnny. Gargano fights back hitting a springboard moonasult to the outside and double knees to the back of the head. Balor blocks a superkick and lands a Slingblade for a two. He looks for Bloody Sunday, but Johnny rolls him up for two before a superkick gives way to a similar result. Johnny misses a superkick with the DIY taunt and gets caught with a double stomp to the chest. A Bloody Sunday and Coup De Grace to the back of the head follow giving Balor the definitive victory.
Finn Balor (2) def. Johnny Gargano (0) (16:37)
Mustafa Ali vs Timothy Thatcher
Thatcher vows to break Ali's spirit before this match to prove no man can withstand his submissions. Ali and Timothy tell a beautifully weaved story as Thatcher beats the hell out of Mustafa to start flinging him into the stairs, the barricade and anything else he can get his hands on. Ali begins to mount a comeback off the back of a Tope Con Hilo, but Thatcher cuts it off with nasty chops and scathing elbows. Ali looks for a rolling facebuster and gets caught with a powerbomb. When he kicks out, Thatcher locks The Walls Of Jericho in. He transitions into a crossface, fujiwara armbar and ankle lock before Ali is able to escape. Timothy his a shinbreaker on the apron, targeting the legs of Ali. Mustafa finds an opening after connecting with a rolling neckbreaker. Thatcher kicks out and Mustafa climbs for 054° but Tim catches him with knees before locking a Sharpshooter. He stomps on the back of the neck when Mustafa reaches the ropes. He locks a surfboard before finally transitioning into a dragon sleeper and Ali fades after refusing to submit, giving Thatcher the win albeit not the way he wanted.
Timothy Thatcher (2) def. Mustafa Ali (0) (18:11)
Bronson Reed vs Cameron Grimes
Grimes tries to attack before the bell, but Reed makes him pay. Grimes taunts Reed from the outside and as Bronson goes to exit Cameron attacks the leg. He targets the knee throughout the match chopping Reed down to size. He stops all of Reed's comebacks with a well placed kick to the knee. That is until a harrowing running crossbody by Bronson gets him a nearfall. Grimes is sent off the ropes and tries for the Cave In, but Bronson catches him and plants him with a last gasp powerbomb before collapsing. Grimes rolls out before he can cover. When Reed goes to chase Cameron extinguishes Bronson's fire back inside with a dropkick. Reed looks for another crossbody and gets planted with a Moonsault Slam showing the strength and adrenaline in Cameron. Reed gets back up but Grimes ducks all his offense running circles around Bronson before putting him out of his misery with a thunderous Cave In for the W. Grimes has used his strategy to put down the bigger Bronson Reed.
Cameron Grimes (2) def. Bronson Reed (0) (13:29)
Adam Cole vs Kevin Owens
Cole and KO have a lot of history and the commentary team reminds us of that in our main event. The two immediately are on each other like brown on toast. They fight to the outside where Kevin lets his agression out. Once back in Cile targets the head and neck with superkicks, his kneecap brainbuster, and that weird rope hung piledriver that looks like it...should probably not be allowed? Adam always fails to hit the Panama Sunrise though with Kevin reversing with a boot and a DDT and once with a superkick. A pop-up powerbomb gets Owens a two and a missed frogsplash wields the same outcome for Cole. Adam and Owens trade moves before a Stunner is shoved away and Adam hits a lungblower. Cole connects with the last shot, but this is about pride now. Showing that he can. He climbs and finally connects with Panama Sunrise for the 1, 2, 3.
Adam Cole (2) def. Kevin Owens (0) (20:16)
NXT, 9/9/2020
Adam Cole vs Tommaso Ciampa
Kevin Owens vs Mustafa Ali
Bronson Reed vs Roderick Strong
Cameron Grimes vs Finn Balor
Women's match/segment
NA Title match/segment
Kevin Owens vs Mustafa Ali
Ali outwrestles Owens early using his fast paced athleticism to his advantage. A nasty clothesline from a fed up Owens turns the tides. A fisherman suplex by Owens garners a two count. A swanton connects, but Ali fights out. Owens tries for a pop-up powerbomb and Ali reverses with a huracanrana. A rolling neckbreaker connects and Mustafa climbs, trying for 054° KO gets the knees up and nails a superkick before dragging up Mustafa for a rage bred stunner netting KO the victory. Ali sits in the middle of the ring, disappointed in himself.
Kevin Owens (2) def. Mustafa Ali (0) (14:26)
Cameron Grimes vs Finn Balor
The match starts with Cameron being his usual scummy self as he dips in and out of the ring avoiding Balor. He catches Finn as he enters with a dropkick turning the tables in his favor. A missed baseball slide from Grimes opens the door for a slingblade on the outside. Balor looks for 1916, but Grimes escapes and connects with a Twist Of Fate honoring his trainer, Matt Hardy. It gets a close count before Balor inevitably battles back. He grounds Grimes, littering him with stomps. He corners him and charges in for a shotgun dropkick but CAVE IN! OUT OF NOWHERE! He drags up Finn and hits Gods Last Gift/fisherman buster for a near fall. He frantically grabs at Finn hitting a suplex into a catch powerbomb for another two. Cameron is beside himself and stalks for another Cave In which is avoided as Finn hits a Pele Kick before connecting with a desperation corner dropkick and Coup De Grace to the back of the head for a hard fought victory. Balor quickly exits the ring at the bell, glad to have escaped the scrappy Cameron Grimes.
Finn Balor (4) def. Cameron Grimes (2) (15:47)
Bronson Reed vs Roderick Strong
Reed dominates early before he starts showing signs of weakness in his taped leg. Roddy zeroes in on it locking knee bars, figure fours and ankle locks while stomping away at the limp limb. A Claymore/Rocket Kick gets Roderick a near fall. Reed tries to mount a second wind landing vicious clothesline, uppercuts and elbows but Roderick cuts him off by hitting a chop block to the knee. A second Claymore followed by an impressive End Of Heartache gets Roderick the win. Questions are raised about Bronson's status going forward.
Roderick Strong (2) def. Bronson Reed (0) (14:12)
Adam Cole vs Tommaso Ciampa
The match starts at a traditional, leveled pace with the two men reversing each others maneuvers. A panama sunrise gets caught into an air raid crash. A kneecap brainbuster attempt gets shoved away and Ciampa connects with a bicycle knee. The match gets more physical when Tommaso lands a corner knee strike and gets two. He tosses Cole out and when he tries to grab him, Cole swats him away and sticks a leaping enziguri. Adam goes to reenter and Ciampa kicks the rope into Adam's Coals. A hanging DDT follows for a near fall. Ciampa loses his temper and tries for a powerbomb, but Cole slips out and hits a canadian destroyer. He looks for Last Shot which is ducked and Ciampa connects with Fairytale Ending. He thinks back to goldie, his neck and knee injuries, how Cole was the man he failed to capture the title against. Instead of immediately pinning he grabs onto the wrist and locks a Fujiwara Armbar or GoldieLockTM. Adam, not wanting to risk injury, taps soon after.
Tommaso Ciampa (2) def. Adam Cole (2) (17:35)
NXT, 9/16/2020
Adam Cole vs Mustafa Ali
Timothy Thatcher vs Tommaso Ciampa
Johnny Gargano vs Roderick Strong
Bronson Reed vs Finn Balor
Women's match/segment
NA Title match/segment
Johnny Gargano vs Roderick Strong
Gargano and Strong start with grapples and chain wrestling before a series of roll-ups nearly affords Johnny the early win. Strong takes control with a leaping knee strike to a charging Gargano. Roddy works away on Johnny in the corner blasting him with chops before setting him up top. A failed superplex attempt allows Johnny to escape before a failed sunset flip attempt leads to Johnny hitting a superkick to the knee tangling Roddy in the turnbuckles. Roderick is left reeling on the outside while a smug Gargano beckons him back in. A sequence of ducked running moves as the men leapfrog over each other ends in a rare dropkick from Strong for two. Roderick tosses Johnny outside hitting a suplex on the padded concrete. He tries to send Gargano back in only for Johnny to slide through, duck a lariat and roll Roderick onto his knees for a rolling kick to the temple. Roderick is sent back in, but catches a slingshot spear for a hanging DDT. A rocket kick follows for a near fall. Strong tries for End Of Heartache and Johnny reverses with a spike DDT. Gargano recovers in the corner as Strong, his brain rewired, charges in to a dropkick to the knee sending him into the turnbuckle. Johnny slithers to the outside and a slingshot DDT follows for a near fall. Gargano hits a superkick to a kneeling Strong and goes to the corner for the DIY taunt, but Strong passes out. Johnny puts his foot under the chin bringing Roderick back up. A superkick attempt by Johnny is reversed into an Ankle Lock! Roderick drags Johnny into the center of the ring and sinks into a knee bar. Johnny tries to make it to the ropes, coming fingertips away before Roddy rolls him back into the middle. Johnny has little choice but to tap giving a desperate Strong the well deserved victory leaving a flustered and angry Johnny Gargano behind.
Roderick Strong (4) def. Johnny Gargano (0) (16:31)
Timothy Thatcher vs Tommaso Ciampa
Tommaso gives "the new kid" a free shot and Tim takes it knocking Ciampa on his ass and pummeling him with chops to the face until the ref backs him up. Timothy being a submission brute wears away at the neck and knee hitting a surfboard/OG curb stomp to the head. He twists away at the neck and hits brainbusters. He sets Ciampa's head up against the turnbuckles and stands on the neck laughing at the agony of Ciampa. He stomps on the knee and pulls a card out of Brock's deck tucking the leg behind his head and wringing away lifting Ciampa off the ground. Tommaso begins to fire back after being booted out of the ring and mocked. He thinks back to another new kid, Karrion Kross. The man who took him out at Takeover. The man who embarrassed him. Ciampa gets a predatory look in his eye and marches back in nailing Timothy with right hooks. A buckle bomb connects from a weak kneed Ciampa who collapses afterwards in white hot pain. He drags up Thatcher for Fairytale Ending but Tim escapes landing a russian leg sweep before tagging Ciampa with repeated headbutts and elbows to the shoulder blade. He then locks onto the wrist and locks a fujiwara armbar adding insult to injury. Ciampa slips to the ropes after over a minute of torture. Thatcher slaps away at a kneeling Ciampa and as Timothy goes to run the ropes, Ciampa gets to his feet and clocks him with a bicycle knee sending both men down. Ciampa gets up clutching his knee and drags Timothy into Fairytale Ending position before opting to hit a DDT and creep over to the arm. He cackles as the GoldieLockTM is applied and Thatcher, despite his pride, hits his breaking point tapping out. Ciampa holds on for a bit after the bell forcing refs to get him off. It's a slippery slope for Ciampa as one visit to your old ways can start the tsunami of habits you swore you kicked. The crowd chants psycho killer only egging on Ciampa in his quest for Goldie.
Tommaso Ciampa (4) def. Timothy Thatcher (2) (13:27)
Bronson Reed vs Finn Balor
Reed limps through the curtain and tries to manhandle Balor early before Finn starts teeing off on the leg. Bronson plows through Finn with a lariat and squashes him with a running senton. He tries for a suplex on one leg, but Balor escapes and executes a chop block to the knee. A running basement dropkick follows and Bronson exits the ring. Balor trails behind and sends him face first into the steps and apron. He stomps on the head on the apron. A baseball slide clocks an already unsteady Reed. Bronson tries to fight back with elbows and forearms but charges right into a thunderous slingblade. Balor shoves the dead weight of Bronson into the ring before climbing for a missed coup de grace. Reed crashes into Balor with a running crossbody for a two. Bronson gets him on the shoulders for a samoan drop and Balor escapes hooking onto the head and connecting with an elbow drop to the heart. Two slingblades from different sides of the ring have Bronson in a bad way. Balor tries for a shotgun dropkick but Reed pounces him halfway through his trot knocking Balor off his feet. Reed unleashes a flurry of stinging strikes rattling Balor. A dropkick to a running Reed slows his momentum. Balor tries for Bloody Sunday but Reed rolls him up for a nearfall. Bronson gets him into Alabama slam position and Balor slips out taking out the knee before hitting a double stomp to the spine. Balor ascends once more for Coup De Grace. Bronson smashes into the ropes knocking Finn's Balors into the steel connector between the turnbuckle and post. He climbs and gets Balor in Alabama slam position again which Balor once more avoids. Bronson boots him away and lands a diving crossbody. A spinning forearm to the back of the head knocks Balor out cold. Bronson, hobbled, scoops Balor up and plants him with a gnarly Inverted Vertebreaker! he covers a dazed Balor for a surprising three second tan.
Bronson Reed (2) def. Finn Balor (4) (13:08)
Adam Cole vs Mustafa Ali
Ali uses his high-flying prowess to upset Cole in the beginning stages. A rolling Ali gets clocked with a superkick giving Adam the edge. Adam suffocates Mustafa with headlocks and mudhole stomps. He tries for a kneecap brainbuster which Mustafa escapes before trying for a roll-up for two. Adam downs him with a Bicycle Kick. Cole gets him in a firemans carry and Ali adjusts into electric chair position stunning Adam with a reverse frankensteiner. A rolling shoulder thrust in the corner is followed by a handstand huracanrana. Cole escapes to the outside but is afforded no breathing room as Mustafa lays him out with three consecutive dives. A Tope Con Hilo, a suicide dive and a baseball slide DDT. Ali sends him back in and Cole possums him into a fireman's carry. Tries for ushigoroshi and Mustafa lands on his feet! Cole furrowing his brows, charges right into a spanish fly! Just a two count for the scrappy Mustafa Ali. Cole rolling to the apron and Mustafa ascends. 450 APRON SPLASH! COLE MOVES! ALI SMACKS INTO THE DAMN APRON! Superkick to the back of the head by Cole and Ali is sent back in. One, Two, HAND ON THE ROPE! Cole gets him up top and tries for an outside superplex. Ali fighting back with lefts and rights. Kick between the eyes from Ali. SPRINGBOARD SPANISH FLY FROM THE HEART AND SOUL! ONE, TWO, NEAR FALL! Ali desperately up top, Fish and O'Reilly on the apron, Ali wipes them out and hits a tope con hilo on both, back up, 450 Splash, Cole avoids, LAST SHOT! Adam drags Ali up and into position. PANAMA SUNRISE! Tucking the arms in and hooking the legs! One! Two! Three! Cole has survived Mustafa Ali. Ali is left drained and hurt in the center of the ring for a third week as Cole celebrates with Kyle and Bobby on the ramp.
Adam Cole (4) def. Mustafa Ali (0) (16:24)
NXT, 9/23/2020
Adam Cole vs Timothy Thatcher
Kevin Owens vs Tommaso Ciampa
Bronson Reed vs Johnny Gargano
Cameron Grimes vs Roderick Strong
Women's match/segment
NA Title match/segment
Cameron Grimes vs Roderick Strong
Grimes tries to avoid Roddy's technical ability by hiding behind the ropes and ref. Roderick finally starts unloading with body shots and as he hits the ropes, Cameron scoops him up for his Swinging Side Slam but Roddy nails him with a DDT reversal. Strong lying in wait for an Olympic Slam! Cover for a two count and now Roderick targets the legs locking in a Strong Hold/Walls Of Jericho. Cameron trying to crawl desperately to the ropes, Grimes finally reaches and Strong uses every second of the five count. Roddy marches over and Grimes slips under and behind Roddy. Chop block to the knee. Rolling to where he's standing in front of Strong with his back turned. MOONSAULT GERMAN SUPLEX with a bridge pin! A close call follows and Roddy pulls himself up, weakly, in the corner. He suckers Cameron into a boot to the mid-section. Powerbomb position and Cameron escapes. Superman Forearm is ducked and Grimes is shoved into the ropes. Claymore/Rocket Kick by Roderick turns Grimes inside out. Strong drags up Grimes for the Gibson Driver which is basically a double underhook powerbomb. Grimes ranas out of it for a two. Strong running into a Moonsault Slam from The Carolina Caveman! Grimes stalking for a Cave In. Roddy catches him mid move into a Strong Hold! Grimes twisting out of the submission. Superman Forearm! Lariat by Strong! End Of Hearteache! Grimes escapes! CAVE IN! ONE! TWO! THREE! Grimes slides out of the ring hand and hat held high as he stomps to a four point total.
Cameron Grimes (4) def. Roderick Strong (4) (14:19)
Adam Cole vs Timothy Thatcher
Thatcher has Cole retreating early and looks to go out of his comfort zone with a baseball slide. Adam catches him and hooks onto the waste. Dragging Thatcher out of the ring he looks for a wheelbarrow german but Tim with a bulldog reversal. Cole rolling back in clutching his nose and Thatcher hooks on for a sleeper hold, Adam beginning to choke. The bigger Tim leaps onto the back intensifying the pressure. Adam collapses into a backpack stunner to escape. Thatcher with a running european uppercut to floor Adam. Timothy going to the top rope for a rare high-flying maneuver. Flying Headbutt! Cole out of the way! Superkick, Thatcher bouncing off the ropes, StraightJacket German Suplex/Florida Keys with a bridge pin. A near fall is all it gets him. Cole dragging up Timothy. Runs the ropes for a Leaping Shining Wizard which Timothy ducks. Thatcher catches a charging Cole in a Cross Armbar takedown with a submission at the end. Cole scrambling to make it to the ropes, forcing separation. Thatcher now charging in, but popped up and over onto the apron. Cole with a SLINGSHOT LUNGBLOWER ON THE APRON! Cole clutching his lumbar, he may have hurt himself as well. Adam sends Tim back in and goes to the middle turnbuckle. Panama Sunrise reversed with a back body drop. Thatcher hooks onto the wrist for a Fujiwara Armbar. The same move Cole tapped out to two weeks ago. O'Reilly and Fish are here! IMPERIUM clearing them out! Cole has nowhere to go and no choice but to tap out. Aichner and Barthel approach the ring after and offer Thatcher an Imperium shirt ahead of his showdown with Kevin Owens next week.
Timothy Thatcher (4) def. Adam Cole (4) (15:31)
Bronson Reed vs Johnny Gargano
Reed's knee at this point is heavily injured and he is recommended by trainers not to fight in this match. He defies their orders in order to have a chance at his dream of becoming NXT Champion. Johnny targets the leg early and Bronson looks to end things trying for a rear naked choke. Gargano rolls through for a two count when Bronson tries to take him to the ground. Reed charges in and Johnny hops to the outside causing Reed to crash into the turnbuckles. A hanging soccer kick from Gargano opens up the door for a Slingshot DDT. Reed gets the shoulder up via an aggressive kickout at one. Bronson makes it to the ropes and Johnny runs in. Reed sends him to the apron. Johnny hangs up the back and arms on the ropes. Slingshot Spear into a knee lift by Reed. Running Senton to the spine of Gargano. The 330+ pounder crushing Johnny. Cover for a close two count. Bronson drags up Gargano and hooks under the arms for a Death Drop Driver (hook under the arms Master Lock style, popup, into a german suplex) but Gargano sinks into a headlock halfway through and pokes the eye of Reed. Gargano prepping himself. What the hell is he thinking? Johnny struggling, can't quite. Forearm. Forearm. Gargano yet again...JOHNNY GARGANO LIFTING BRONSON UP! TWO SECONDS BEFORE HE SEND HIM PLUMMETING DOWN WITH AN AIR RAID CRASH ON REED! COVER! ONE! TWO! THR- What a false finish! A dazed look in the eye as Gargano clutches his back and abdomen after that impressive feat of superhuman strength. Gargano does the DIY pose in the corner. Superkick gets ducked and Reed looks for a brainbuster on one good knee! A near fall follows leaving Reed exhausted and wonder what it's gonna take. With his last bit of fuel in the tank he goes to the high rent district and looks to fly. Diving Body Splash by Reed! Gargano rolls out of the way. Johnny pouncing in with an opportunistic Garga-NO Escape! Reed holding on. Biting his fist. And eventually inevitably submitting to Johnny Gargano. Doctors have to help Reed to the back afterwards.
Johnny Gargano (2) def. Bronson Reed (2) (12:32)
Kevin Owens vs Tommaso Ciampa
Both men being brawlers with nothing to lose and everything to gain go to battle one on one for the first time in over six years. Heavy hits early as the fight spills to the outside. The men brawl all over ringside before returning to the squared circle. Ciampa tries for the Psycho Cutter (Neckbreaker positioning turned into a cutter at the last monent) but Owens escapes shoving him away and flooring him with a superkick. KO sees the opportunity and climbs to the top for a Swanton Bomb, but Ciampa rolls out of the way as Owens meets the mat. Ciampa, showing his strength, hoists up Owens for a Powerbomb into the knees. Near fall for Tommaso who seems to be letting his emotions get the better of him. Ciampa clotheslining Owens to the apron. Owens tries for a shoulder thrust but gets caught in DDT position. Owens scraps out and drags the arm over the ropes before hitting a hanging DDT of his own on the apron. He goes to the top and executes a death defying frog splash. Ciampa barely survives the count and Owens is forced to go back to the drawing board. Ciampa sent off the ropes; pop-up powerbomb but Ciampa ends up behind KO. Boot to the midsection and Ciampa takes control. Owens set up top as Tommaso exits onto the apron. He begins to climb before Owens begins fighting back with elbows and headbutts. KO tries for a fisherman superplex but Ciampa escapes and hits a sunset flip. Owens refusing to break his grip on the turnbuckle. Ciampa finally pries him away, Powerbomb into the knees for a second time. Cover for a call as close as mine to the suicide hotline. Ciampa drags him up thinking Fairytale Ending, but the sloppiness of a frenzied Ciampa allows KO to escape for a Stone Cold Stunner. Cover by Owens, One, Two, Three. After the match Ciampa sits in the corner talking to himself when Kevin offers him a handshake. Ciampa slaps away the hand and gets in the face of Owens. Ciampa goes to the back but not before trashing the announce desk.
Kevin Owens (4) def. Tommaso Ciampa (4) (15:29)
NXT, 9/30/2020
Kevin Owens vs Timothy Thatcher
Mustafa Ali vs Tommaso Ciampa
Cameron Grimes vs Johnny Gargano
Finn Balor vs Roderick Strong
Women's match/segment
NA Title match/segment
Cameron Grimes vs Johnny Gargano
The match starts fast paced and barely slows down as Cameron has Johnny reeling on the outside. Springboard Moonsault by Grimes misses as Gargano gets back in. Cameron back to his feet just in time to eat a suicide dive into the plastic barrier. Grimes sent back in as Johnny climbs to the middle turnbuckle. Tornado Flatliner attempt, however, Grimes catches him and maneuvers the arm into position for a suplex into a catch powerbomb! One, Two, Deadlift Sitout Powerbomb by Grimes! One, Two, near fall over Gargano. Cameron drags up Johnny thinking roundhouse which gets ducked, Cameron tries for a superkick and Johnny rolls out of the way before scooping up Grimes for a vicious lawn dart into the middle turnbuckle. Cameron rolling onto the apron and Johnny stalks. Slingshot Apron DDT and Grimes shoves him away. DROPKICK ON THE APRON BY GRIMES! Johnny sent back in and Cameron closes in. Cave In! Johnny rolls out of the way. Superkick by Johnny and now taking Cameron to the floor to sinch a Garga-NO Escape! Grimes holding on but eventually succumbs to the loss of air.
Johnny Gargano (4) def. Cameron Grimes (4) (10:54)
Kevin Owens vs Timothy Thatcher
Owens and Thatcher are equally skilled at brawling while Tim has a bit of a technical ability advantage on him. Timothy scraps with KO and executes a takedown early before trying for a Bow And Arrow submission. Owens is able to escape into a pinfall and Tim gets his shoulders up quickly. Owens sends him back down with a lariat. Kevin looks to capitalize hoisting the 245lb Timothy onto his shoulders in torture rack position before trying to spin him off but Tim lands on his knees and quickly attacks the leg before applying the single leg Boston Crab. Thatcher works the knee for as long as allowed before Owens reaches the ropes. Thatcher drags up Kevin littering him with uppercuts and forearms before catching a right hand from Owens and trying to sinch a Kimura Lock. Thatcher locks it in and desperately tries to get Kevin on the ground. Owens is able to escape under the arm and break free from the submission before hitting a boot to the midsection and a Kneecap Neckbreaker Thatcher crawls to the corner and Owens unloads with mudhole stomps before charging in for a cannonball! Thatcher avoids before grabbing onto the leg and applying the Stretch MuffleBrock Lock on Owens leg. Eventually the strain on Tim's neck gets to be too much and he releases the old but not before lifting Owens off the ground inflicting as much damage to the knee as possible. Timothy now stomping on the shoulder and elbow and wrist several times before going for the Fujiwara Armbar! Owens struggles and considers submission before hooking on with his free arm into a roll-up for two. A Stunner follows causing Owens to grab his arm in pain. Even still he's able to cover for the one, two, three. Tim Thatcher accepts Imperium's offer backstage.
Kevin Owens (6) def. Timothy Thatcher (4) (13:46)
Mustafa Ali vs Tommaso Ciampa
The story here is Ali has yet to get a win in the tournament whether it be due to passing out or interference or it just not being his night, Mustafa cannot win the title now but is fighting against a man who still can. Tommaso Ciampa needs to defeat Ali here to have a chance to qualify for Takeover. Ciampa, realizing Ali's aerial ability tries to take out the legs early with a Cloverleaf variation, but Ali rolls forward smashing Tommaso into the turnbuckles. Ciampa goes to the outside clutching his neck when Ali executes a dazzling Springboard Tope Con Hilo! Mustafa tosses Ciampa back in and looks to follow up from behind. Reverse Frankensteiner but Ciampa clutches on to the ropes causing Ali to slip off. A running knee strike to a kneeling Ali gets a two count. Ciampa drags him up into Air Raid Crash position which is reversed into a roll-up for a near fall. Ali ducks the clothesline attempt and connects with a Springboard Tornado DDT further damaging the bad neck of Ciampa. When thag only gets a two count Ali charges off the ropes for a Tilt-A-Whirl DDT but Ciampa tosses him off the shoulder and looks for a backfist which Mustafa ducks. Ali looks for a springboard and Ciampa is close behind tossing him off the ropes with a nasty german suplex. Ciampa marches over hooking onto the waist and connecting with another german suplex, a second and a third all while maintaining waist control. Ciampa looks for Fairytale Ending and Ali hooks onto the head for a huracanrana into the turnbuckles. Ali climbs seeing the opening and sticks a 054° for the surprise three count. Ali has finally gotten a big win, proving that he can do it. Ciampa lounges in the corner, beside himself as he frantically whispers to nobody. Ali is celebrating when Ciampa blasts him from behind. Ciampa with a powerbomb into the knees. Fairytale Ending! and now a Fujiwara Armbar applied! Ali refusing to tap as Ciampa wrenches away before snapping the arm. Ciampa exits backstage to "Psycho Killer" chants before reemerging with a table! He gets Ali on the apron and hits a huge powerbomb through the wooden desk! Ali lies broken as Ciampa's dreams are dashed. He'll never get Goldie back now...unless.
Mustafa Ali (2) def. Tommaso Ciampa (4) (15:08)
Finn Balor vs Roderick Strong
It comes down to this. Both men have four points and the winner of this match will face Kevin Owens at Takeover WarGames for the NXT Championship. One man that originated in ROH, one in New Japan. They clash one on one for the first time ever right now. They grapple early creating a sequence consisting of wristlocks, headlocks and waistlocks alike. Roddy eventually has a double underhook and tries for a half nelson backbreaker which Balor arm drags out of before planting Roddy with a scintillating slingblade. Roderick rolls to the outside and Balor looks to follow up with a rare Tope Con Hilo. After Roderick avoids and Balor crashes and burns Strong scoops him up for a fireman's carry double knee gutbuster on the outside. Roderick returns to the ring and gloats over a fallen Finn Balor. As Finn tries to drag himself up on the apron, Roderick exits to meet him. He gets him in torture rack position and nears the steel post. Finn fights back with elbows. He hooks onto the head and lands a 1916 from the apron to the floor! Both men narrowly beat the count of ten. Balor sets Roddy in the corner and lands a few running knife edge chops as he whips Strong into various edges of the ring. Strong is set up top and Balor climbs thinking Avalanche Bloody Sunday. Roddy fights back with blows to the kidneys before hooking on for an AVALANCHE OLYMPIC SLAM! COVER FOR THE ONE, TWO, NEAR FALL! Roddy pounding the mat in utter frustration. Strong irish whips Balor into the corner and charges in with a leaping knee strike before hooking on for a belly to back facebuster Balor hangs on for an arm drag and hooks on for Bloody Sunday! He covers and gets a three count but as the ref counts three he notices Roderick's foot touching the rope (Ala Seth/Neville) stopping his decision. Balor starts lashing out at the ref before dragging up Roddy for another Bloody Sunday which Roddy reverses into a close roll-up. Roderick grabs Balor to connect with a cradle backbreaker. He desperately drags up an injured Balor for End Of Heartache which Balor turns into a DDT. Balor climbs hitting a Coup De Grace to the back of the skull and then one to the stomach affording him the golden Takeover ticket.
Finn Balor (6) def. Roderick Strong (4) (18:27)
submitted by CheebsHasReturned to u/CheebsHasReturned [link] [comments]


2020.08.31 02:11 CheebsHasReturned Fantasy ReBooking The NXT Championship After The Vacancy By Kross Part I

Karrion Kross is the new NXT Champion! Uh. After Keith Lee captured the big gold belt at the Great American Bash he then proceeded to drop it to the new monster heel in town Karrion Kross in the main event of Tak30ver. Kross then blew out his shoulder in a similar fashion to Finn Balor in 2016 leaving us with quite the dilemma.
NXT:
Triple H hits the ring on the NXT after Takeover to inform us that indeed Kross has tore his shoulder. He will likely be gone for a long time and thus will have to vacate the title. He proposes a tournament, not unlike the Cruiserweight tournament earlier on in the year, to crown a new NXT Champion at Takeover Judgement Day! (Listen I want WarGames too but it's pretty unsafe to have that many people in such a small area and the pop when it returns in a year or two will be huge.)
He says that there will be eight men from NXT with a couple surprises from RAW with the men involved being split into two groups of five where each man in Group A faces each other once and each man in Group B faces each other once. The tournament will take place over the next five weeks and will culminate with the winner of Group A and Group B slugging it out for the NXT Championship at Takeover! He then explains that you get two points for a win, one point for a draw and zero for a loss before proclaiming that the tournament will take place next week with a handful of qualifiers tonight.
Bronson Reed vs Kushida
Cameron Grimes vs Killian Dain
Timothy Thatcher vs Ridge Holland
Raw:
Mustafa Ali vs Ricochet
Kevin Owens vs Dolph Ziggler
The final groups are revealed on Twitter before NXT:
Group A Group B
Adam Cole Bronson Reed
Kevin Owens Cameron Grimes
Mustafa Ali Finn Balor
Timothy Thatcher Johnny Gargano
Tommaso Ciampa Roderick Strong
This leaves Damian Priest guys like Arturo Ruas, Danny Burch, Dexter Lumis (if he heals up in time), Isaiah Swerve Scott, Killian Dain, Kushida, Oney Lorcan, Ridge Holland and (if found innocent) Velveteen Dream as possible opponents on NXT and Takeover. I personally would probably do Priest vs Arturo and Holland in mini TV feuds before having Priest vs Kushida at Takeover, but to each their own.
NXT 9/2/2020
Lineup:
Adam Cole vs Kevin Owens
Mustafa Ali vs Timothy Thatcher
Bronson Reed vs Cameron Grimes
Finn Balor vs Johnny Gargano
Women's segment/match
NA Title match/segment
Finn Balor vs Johnny Gargano
These two men match each other technically early before Balor starts to overpower Johnny. Gargano fights back hitting a springboard moonasult to the outside and double knees to the back of the head. Balor blocks a superkick and lands a Slingblade for a two. He looks for Bloody Sunday, but Johnny rolls him up for two before a superkick gives way to a similar result. Johnny misses a superkick with the DIY taunt and gets caught with a double stomp to the chest. A Bloody Sunday and Coup De Grace to the back of the head follow giving Balor the definitive victory.
Finn Balor (2) def. Johnny Gargano (0) (16:37)
Mustafa Ali vs Timothy Thatcher
Thatcher vows to break Ali's spirit before this match to prove no man can withstand his submissions. Ali and Timothy tell a beautifully weaved story as Thatcher beats the hell out of Mustafa to start flinging him into the stairs, the barricade and anything else he can get his hands on. Ali begins to mount a comeback off the back of a Tope Con Hilo, but Thatcher cuts it off with nasty chops and scathing elbows. Ali looks for a rolling facebuster and gets caught with a powerbomb. When he kicks out, Thatcher locks The Walls Of Jericho in. He transitions into a crossface, fujiwara armbar and ankle lock before Ali is able to escape. Timothy hits a shinbreaker on the apron, targeting the legs of Ali. Mustafa finds an opening after connecting with a rolling neckbreaker. Thatcher kicks out and Mustafa climbs for 054° but Tim catches him with knees before locking a Sharpshooter. He stomps on the back of the neck when Mustafa reaches the ropes. He locks a surfboard before finally transitioning into a dragon sleeper and Ali fades after refusing to submit, giving Thatcher the win albeit not the way he wanted.
Timothy Thatcher (2) def. Mustafa Ali (0) (18:11)
Bronson Reed vs Cameron Grimes
Grimes tries to attack before the bell, but Reed makes him pay. Grimes taunts Reed from the outside and as Bronson goes to exit Cameron attacks the leg. He targets the knee throughout the match chopping Reed down to size. He stops all of Reed's comebacks with a well placed kick to the knee. That is until a harrowing running crossbody by Bronson gets him a nearfall. Grimes is sent off the ropes and tries for the Cave In, but Bronson catches him and plants him with a last gasp powerbomb before collapsing. Grimes rolls out before he can cover. When Reed goes to chase Cameron extinguishes Bronson's fire back inside with a dropkick. Reed looks for another crossbody and gets planted with a Moonsault Slam showing the strength and adrenaline in Cameron. Reed gets back up but Grimes ducks all his offense running circles around Bronson before putting him out of his misery with a thunderous Cave In for the W. Grimes has used his strategy to put down the bigger Bronson Reed.
Cameron Grimes (2) def. Bronson Reed (0) (13:29)
Adam Cole vs Kevin Owens
Cole and KO have a lot of history and the commentary team reminds us of that in our main event. The two immediately are on each other like brown on toast. They fight to the outside where Kevin lets his agression out. Once back in Cole targets the head and neck with superkicks, his kneecap brainbuster, and that weird rope hung piledriver that looks like it...should probably not be allowed? Adam always fails to hit the Panama Sunrise though with Kevin reversing with a boot and a DDT and once with a superkick. A pop-up powerbomb gets Owens a two and a missed frogsplash wields the same outcome for Cole. Adam and Owens trade moves before a Stunner is shoved away and Adam hits a lungblower. Cole connects with the last shot, but this is about pride now. Showing that he can. He climbs and finally connects with Panama Sunrise for the 1, 2, 3.
Adam Cole (2) def. Kevin Owens (0) (20:16)
NXT, 9/9/2020
Adam Cole vs Tommaso Ciampa
Kevin Owens vs Mustafa Ali
Bronson Reed vs Roderick Strong
Cameron Grimes vs Finn Balor
Women's match/segment
NA Title match/segment
Kevin Owens vs Mustafa Ali
Ali outwrestles Owens early using his fast paced athleticism to his advantage. A nasty clothesline from a fed up Owens turns the tides. A fisherman suplex by Owens garners a two count. A swanton connects, but Ali fights out. Owens tries for a pop-up powerbomb and Ali reverses with a huracanrana. A rolling neckbreaker connects and Mustafa climbs, trying for 054° KO gets the knees up and nails a superkick before dragging up Mustafa for a rage bred stunner netting KO the victory. Ali sits in the middle of the ring, disappointed in himself.
Kevin Owens (2) def. Mustafa Ali (0) (14:26)
Cameron Grimes vs Finn Balor
The match starts with Cameron being his usual scummy self as he dips in and out of the ring avoiding Balor. He catches Finn as he enters with a dropkick turning the tables in his favor. A missed baseball slide from Grimes opens the door for a slingblade on the outside. Balor looks for 1916, but Grimes escapes and connects with a Twist Of Fate honoring his trainer, Matt Hardy. It gets a close count before Balor inevitably battles back. He grounds Grimes, littering him with stomps. He corners him and charges in for a shotgun dropkick but CAVE IN! OUT OF NOWHERE! He drags up Finn and hits Gods Last Gift/fisherman buster for a near fall. He frantically grabs at Finn hitting a suplex into a catch powerbomb for another two. Cameron is beside himself and stalks for another Cave In which is avoided as Finn hits a Pele Kick before connecting with a desperation corner dropkick and Coup De Grace to the back of the head for a hard fought victory. Balor quickly exits the ring at the bell, glad to have escaped the scrappy Cameron Grimes.
Finn Balor (4) def. Cameron Grimes (2) (15:47)
Bronson Reed vs Roderick Strong
Reed dominates early before he starts showing signs of weakness in his taped leg. Roddy zeroes in on it locking knee bars, figure fours and ankle locks while stomping away at the limp limb. A Claymore/Rocket Kick gets Roderick a near fall. Reed tries to mount a second wind landing vicious clotheslines, uppercuts and elbows but Roderick cuts him off by hitting a chop block to the knee. A second Claymore followed by an impressive End Of Heartache gets Roderick the win. Questions are raised about Bronson's status going forward.
Roderick Strong (2) def. Bronson Reed (0) (14:12)
Adam Cole vs Tommaso Ciampa
The match starts at a traditional, leveled pace with the two men reversing each others maneuvers. A panama sunrise gets caught into an Air Raid Crash A kneecap brainbuster attempt gets shoved away and Ciampa connects with a bicycle knee. The match gets more physical when Tommaso lands a corner knee strike and gets two. He tosses Cole out and when he tries to grab him, Cole swats him away and sticks a leaping enziguri. Adam goes to reenter and Ciampa kicks the rope into Adam's Coals. A hanging DDT follows for a near fall. Ciampa loses his temper and tries for a powerbomb, but Cole slips out and hits a canadian destroyer. He looks for Last Shot which is ducked and Ciampa connects with Fairytale Ending. He thinks back to goldie, his neck and knee injuries, how Cole was the man he failed to capture the title against. Instead of immediately pinning he grabs onto the wrist and locks a Fujiwara Armbar or GoldieLockTM. Adam, not wanting to risk injury, taps soon after.
Tommaso Ciampa (2) def. Adam Cole (2) (17:35)
NXT, 9/16/2020
Adam Cole vs Mustafa Ali
Timothy Thatcher vs Tommaso Ciampa
Johnny Gargano vs Roderick Strong
Bronson Reed vs Finn Balor
Women's match/segment
NA Title match/segment
Johnny Gargano vs Roderick Strong
Gargano and Strong start with grapples and chain wrestling before a series of roll-ups nearly affords Johnny the early win. Strong takes control with a leaping knee strike to a charging Gargano. Roddy works away on Johnny in the corner blasting him with chops before setting him up top. A failed superplex attempt allows Johnny to escape before a failed sunset flip attempt leads to Johnny hitting a superkick to the knee tangling Roddy in the turnbuckles. Roderick is left reeling on the outside while a smug Gargano beckons him back in. A sequence of ducked running moves as the men leapfrog over each other ends in a rare dropkick from Strong for two. Roderick tosses Johnny outside hitting a suplex on the padded concrete. He tries to send Gargano back in only for Johnny to slide through, duck a lariat and roll Roderick onto his knees for a rolling kick to the temple. Roderick is sent back in, but catches a slingshot spear for a hanging DDT. A rocket kick follows for a near fall. Strong tries for End Of Heartache and Johnny reverses with a spike DDT. Gargano recovers in the corner as Strong, his brain rewired, charges in to a dropkick to the knee sending him into the turnbuckle. Johnny slithers to the outside and a slingshot DDT follows for a near fall. Gargano hits a superkick to a kneeling Strong and goes to the corner for the DIY taunt, but Strong passes out. Johnny puts his foot under the chin bringing Roderick back up. A superkick attempt by Johnny is reversed into an Ankle Lock! Roderick drags Johnny into the center of the ring and sinks into a knee bar. Johnny tries to make it to the ropes, coming fingertips away before Roddy rolls him back into the middle. Johnny has little choice but to tap giving a desperate Strong the well deserved victory leaving a flustered and angry Johnny Gargano behind.
Roderick Strong (4) def. Johnny Gargano (0) (16:31)
Timothy Thatcher vs Tommaso Ciampa
Tommaso gives "the new kid" a free shot and Tim takes it knocking Ciampa on his ass and pummeling him with chops to the face until the ref backs him up. Timothy being a submission brute wears away at the neck and knee hitting a surfboard/OG curb stomp to the head. He twists away at the neck and hits brainbusters. He sets Ciampa's head up against the turnbuckles and stands on the neck laughing at the agony of Ciampa. He stomps on the knee and pulls a card out of Brock's deck tucking the leg behind his head and wringing away lifting Ciampa off the ground. Tommaso begins to fire back after being booted out of the ring and mocked. He thinks back to another new kid, Karrion Kross. The man who took him out at Takeover. The man who embarrassed him. Ciampa gets a predatory look in his eye and marches back in nailing Timothy with right hooks. A buckle bomb connects from a weak kneed Ciampa who collapses afterwards in white hot pain. He drags up Thatcher for Fairytale Ending but Tim escapes landing a russian leg sweep before tagging Ciampa with repeated headbutts and elbows to the shoulder blade. He then locks onto the wrist and locks a fujiwara armbar adding insult to injury. Ciampa slips to the ropes after over a minute of torture. Thatcher slaps away at a kneeling Ciampa and as Timothy goes to run the ropes, Ciampa gets to his feet and clocks him with a bicycle knee sending both men down. Ciampa gets up clutching his knee and drags Timothy into Fairytale Ending position before opting to hit a DDT and creep over to the arm. He cackles as the GoldieLockTM is applied and Thatcher, despite his pride, hits his breaking point tapping out. Ciampa holds on for a bit after the bell forcing refs to get him off. It's a slippery slope for Ciampa as one visit to your old ways can start the tsunami of habits you swore you kicked. The crowd chants psycho killer only egging on Ciampa in his quest for Goldie.
Tommaso Ciampa (4) def. Timothy Thatcher (2) (13:27)
Bronson Reed vs Finn Balor
Reed limps through the curtain and tries to manhandle Balor early before Finn starts teeing off on the leg. Bronson plows through Finn with a lariat and squashes him with a running senton. He tries for a suplex on one leg, but Balor escapes and executes a chop block to the knee. A running basement dropkick follows and Bronson exits the ring. Balor trails behind and sends him face first into the steps and apron. He stomps on the head on the apron. A baseball slide clocks an already unsteady Reed. Bronson tries to fight back with elbows and forearms but charges right into a thunderous slingblade. Balor shoves the dead weight of Bronson into the ring before climbing for a missed coup de grace. Reed crashes into Balor with a running crossbody for a two. Bronson gets him on the shoulders for a samoan drop and Balor escapes hooking onto the head and connecting with an elbow drop to the heart. Two slingblades from different sides of the ring have Bronson in a bad way. Balor tries for a shotgun dropkick but Reed pounces him halfway through his trot knocking Balor off his feet. Reed unleashes a flurry of stinging strikes rattling Balor. A dropkick to a running Reed slows his momentum. Balor tries for Bloody Sunday but Reed rolls him up for a nearfall. Bronson gets him into Alabama slam position and Balor slips out taking out the knee before hitting a double stomp to the spine. Balor ascends once more for Coup De Grace. Bronson smashes into the ropes knocking Finn's Balors into the steel connector between the turnbuckle and post. He climbs and gets Balor in Alabama slam position again which Balor once more avoids. Bronson boots him away and lands a diving crossbody. A spinning forearm to the back of the head knocks Balor out cold. Bronson, hobbled, scoops Balor up and plants him with a gnarly Inverted Vertebreaker! he covers a dazed Balor for a surprising three second tan.
Bronson Reed (2) def. Finn Balor (4) (13:08)
Adam Cole vs Mustafa Ali
Ali uses his high-flying prowess to upset Cole in the beginning stages. A rolling Ali gets clocked with a superkick giving Adam the edge. Adam suffocates Mustafa with headlocks and mudhole stomps. He tries for a kneecap brainbuster which Mustafa escapes before trying for a roll-up for two. Adam downs him with a Bicycle Kick. Cole gets him in a firemans carry and Ali adjusts into electric chair position stunning Adam with a reverse frankensteiner. A rolling shoulder thrust in the corner is followed by a handstand huracanrana. Cole escapes to the outside but is afforded no breathing room as Mustafa lays him out with three consecutive dives. A Tope Con Hilo, a suicide dive and a baseball slide DDT. Ali sends him back in and Cole possums him into a fireman's carry. Tries for ushigoroshi and Mustafa lands on his feet! Cole furrowing his brows, charges right into a spanish fly! Just a two count for the scrappy Mustafa Ali. Cole rolling to the apron and Mustafa ascends. 450 APRON SPLASH! COLE MOVES! ALI SMACKS INTO THE DAMN APRON! Superkick to the back of the head by Cole and Ali is sent back in. One, Two, HAND ON THE ROPE! Cole gets him up top and tries for an outside superplex. Ali fighting back with lefts and rights. Kick between the eyes from Ali. SPRINGBOARD SPANISH FLY FROM THE HEART AND SOUL! ONE, TWO, NEAR FALL! Ali desperately up top, Fish and O'Reilly on the apron, Ali wipes them out and hits a tope con hilo on both, back up, 450 Splash, Cole avoids, LAST SHOT! Adam drags Ali up and into position. PANAMA SUNRISE! Tucking the arms in and hooking the legs! One! Two! Three! Cole has survived Mustafa Ali. Ali is left drained and hurt in the center of the ring for a third week as Cole celebrates with Kyle and Bobby on the ramp.
Adam Cole (4) def. Mustafa Ali (0) (16:24)
NXT, 9/23/2020
Adam Cole vs Timothy Thatcher
Kevin Owens vs Tommaso Ciampa
Bronson Reed vs Johnny Gargano
Cameron Grimes vs Roderick Strong
Women's match/segment
NA Title match/segment
Cameron Grimes vs Roderick Strong
Grimes tries to avoid Roddy's technical ability by hiding behind the ropes and ref. Roderick finally starts unloading with body shots and as he hits the ropes, Cameron scoops him up for his Swinging Side Slam but Roddy nails him with a DDT reversal. Strong lying in wait for an Olympic Slam! Cover for a two count and now Roderick targets the legs locking in a Strong Hold/Walls Of Jericho. Cameron trying to crawl desperately to the ropes, Grimes finally reaches and Strong uses every second of the five count. Roddy marches over and Grimes slips under and behind Roddy. Chop block to the knee. Rolling to where he's standing in front of Strong with his back turned. MOONSAULT GERMAN SUPLEX with a bridge pin! A close call follows and Roddy pulls himself up, weakly, in the corner. He suckers Cameron into a boot to the mid-section. Powerbomb position and Cameron escapes. Superman Forearm is ducked and Grimes is shoved into the ropes. Claymore/Rocket Kick by Roderick turns Grimes inside out. Strong drags up Grimes for the Gibson Driver which is basically a double underhook powerbomb. Grimes ranas out of it for a two. Strong running into a Moonsault Slam from The Carolina Caveman! Grimes stalking for a Cave In. Roddy catches him mid move into a Strong Hold! Grimes twisting out of the submission. Superman Forearm! Lariat by Strong! End Of Hearteache! Grimes escapes! CAVE IN! ONE! TWO! THREE! Grimes slides out of the ring hand and hat held high as he stomps to a four point total.
Cameron Grimes (4) def. Roderick Strong (4) (14:19)
Adam Cole vs Timothy Thatcher
Thatcher has Cole retreating early and looks to go out of his comfort zone with a baseball slide. Adam catches him and hooks onto the waste. Dragging Thatcher out of the ring he looks for a wheelbarrow german but Tim with a bulldog reversal. Cole rolling back in clutching his nose and Thatcher hooks on for a sleeper hold, Adam beginning to choke. The bigger Tim leaps onto the back intensifying the pressure. Adam collapses into a backpack stunner to escape. Thatcher with a running european uppercut to floor Adam. Timothy going to the top rope for a rare high-flying maneuver. Flying Headbutt! Cole out of the way! Superkick, Thatcher bouncing off the ropes, StraightJacket German Suplex/Florida Keys with a bridge pin. A near fall is all it gets him. Cole dragging up Timothy. Runs the ropes for a Leaping Shining Wizard which Timothy ducks. Thatcher catches a charging Cole in a Cross Armbar takedown with a submission at the end. Cole scrambling to make it to the ropes, forcing separation. Thatcher now charging in, but popped up and over onto the apron. Cole with a SLINGSHOT LUNGBLOWER ON THE APRON! Cole clutching his lumbar, he may have hurt himself as well. Adam sends Tim back in and goes to the middle turnbuckle. Panama Sunrise reversed with a back body drop. Thatcher hooks onto the wrist for a Fujiwara Armbar. The same move Cole tapped out to two weeks ago. O'Reilly and Fish are here! IMPERIUM clearing them out! Cole has nowhere to go and no choice but to tap out. Aichner and Barthel approach the ring after and offer Thatcher an Imperium shirt ahead of his showdown with Kevin Owens next week.
Timothy Thatcher (4) def. Adam Cole (4) (15:31)
Bronson Reed vs Johnny Gargano
Reed's knee at this point is heavily injured and he is recommended by trainers not to fight in this match. He defies their orders in order to have a chance at his dream of becoming NXT Champion. Johnny targets the leg early and Bronson looks to end things trying with a rear naked choke. Gargano rolls through for a two count when Bronson tries to take him to the ground. Reed charges in and Johnny hops to the outside causing Reed to crash into the turnbuckles. A hanging soccer kick from Gargano opens up the door for a Slingshot DDT. Reed gets the shoulder up via an aggressive kickout at one. Bronson makes it to the ropes and Johnny runs in. Reed sends him to the apron. Johnny hangs up the back and arms on the ropes. Slingshot Spear into a knee lift by Reed. Running Senton to the spine of Gargano. The 330+ pounder crushing Johnny. Cover for a close two count. Bronson drags up Gargano and hooks under the arms for a Death Drop Driver (hook under the arms Master Lock style, popup, into a german suplex) but Gargano sinks into a headlock halfway through and pokes the eye of Reed. Gargano prepping himself. What the hell is he thinking? Johnny struggling, can't quite. Forearm. Forearm. Gargano yet again...JOHNNY GARGANO LIFTING BRONSON UP! TWO SECONDS BEFORE HE SEND HIM PLUMMETING DOWN WITH AN AIR RAID CRASH ON REED! COVER! ONE! TWO! THR- What a false finish! A dazed look in the eye as Gargano clutches his back and abdomen after that impressive feat of superhuman strength. Gargano does the DIY pose in the corner. Superkick gets ducked and Reed looks for a brainbuster on one good knee! A near fall follows leaving Reed exhausted and wondering what it's gonna take. With his last bit of fuel in the tank he goes to the high rent district and looks to fly. Diving Body Splash by Reed! Gargano rolls out of the way. Johnny pouncing in with an opportunistic Garga-NO Escape! Reed holding on. Biting his fist. And eventually inevitably submitting to Johnny Gargano. Doctors have to help Reed to the back afterwards.
Johnny Gargano (2) def. Bronson Reed (2) (12:32)
Kevin Owens vs Tommaso Ciampa
Both men being brawlers with nothing to lose and everything to gain go to battle one on one for the first time in over six years. Heavy hits early as the fight spills to the outside. The men brawl all over ringside before returning to the squared circle. Ciampa tries for the Psycho Cutter (Neckbreaker positioning turned into a cutter at the last monent) but Owens escapes shoving him away and flooring him with a superkick. KO sees the opportunity and climbs to the top for a Swanton Bomb, but Ciampa rolls out of the way as Owens meets the mat. Ciampa, showing his strength, hoists up Owens for a Powerbomb into the knees. Near fall for Tommaso who seems to be letting his emotions get the better of him. Ciampa clotheslining Owens to the apron. Owens tries for a shoulder thrust but gets caught in DDT position. Owens scraps out and drags the arm over the ropes before hitting a hanging DDT of his own on the apron. He goes to the top and executes a death defying frog splash. Ciampa barely survives the count and Owens is forced to go back to the drawing board. Ciampa sent off the ropes; pop-up powerbomb but Ciampa ends up behind KO. Boot to the midsection and Ciampa takes control. Owens set up top as Tommaso exits onto the apron. He begins to climb before Owens begins fighting back with elbows and headbutts. KO tries for a fisherman superplex but Ciampa escapes and hits a sunset flip. Owens refusing to break his grip on the turnbuckle. Ciampa finally pries him away, Powerbomb into the knees for a second time. Cover for a call as close as mine to the suicide hotline. Ciampa drags him up thinking Fairytale Ending, but the sloppiness of a frenzied Ciampa allows KO to escape for a Stone Cold Stunner. Cover by Owens, One, Two, Three. After the match Ciampa sits in the corner talking to himself when Kevin offers him a handshake. Ciampa slaps away the hand and gets in the face of Owens. Ciampa goes to the back but not before trashing the announce desk.
Kevin Owens (4) def. Tommaso Ciampa (4) (15:29)
NXT, 9/30/2020
Kevin Owens vs Timothy Thatcher
Mustafa Ali vs Tommaso Ciampa
Cameron Grimes vs Johnny Gargano
Finn Balor vs Roderick Strong
Women's match/segment
NA Title match/segment
Cameron Grimes vs Johnny Gargano
The match starts fast paced and barely slows down as Cameron has Johnny reeling on the outside. Springboard Moonsault by Grimes misses as Gargano gets back in. Cameron back to his feet just in time to eat a suicide dive into the plastic barrier. Grimes sent back in as Johnny climbs to the middle turnbuckle. Tornado Flatliner attempt, however, Grimes catches him and maneuvers the arm into position for a suplex into a catch powerbomb! One, Two, Deadlift Sitout Powerbomb by Grimes! One, Two, near fall over Gargano. Cameron drags up Johnny thinking roundhouse which gets ducked, Cameron tries for a superkick and Johnny rolls out of the way before scooping up Grimes for a vicious lawn dart into the middle turnbuckle. Cameron rolling onto the apron and Johnny stalks. Slingshot Apron DDT and Grimes shoves him away. DROPKICK ON THE APRON BY GRIMES! Johnny sent back in and Cameron closes in. Cave In! Johnny rolls out of the way. Superkick by Johnny and now taking Cameron to the floor to sinch a Garga-NO Escape! Grimes holding on but eventually succumbs to the loss of air.
Johnny Gargano (4) def. Cameron Grimes (4) (10:54)
Kevin Owens vs Timothy Thatcher
Owens and Thatcher are equally skilled at brawling while Tim has a bit of a technical ability advantage on him. Timothy scraps with KO and executes a takedown early before trying for a Bow And Arrow submission. Owens is able to escape into a pinfall and Tim gets his shoulders up quickly. Owens sends him back down with a lariat. Kevin looks to capitalize hoisting the 245lb Timothy onto his shoulders in torture rack position before trying to spin him off but Tim lands on his knees and quickly attacks the leg before applying the single leg Boston Crab. Thatcher works the knee for as long as allowed before Owens reaches the ropes. Thatcher drags up Kevin littering him with uppercuts and forearms before catching a right hand from Owens and trying to sinch a Kimura Lock. Thatcher locks it in and desperately tries to get Kevin on the ground. Owens is able to escape under the arm and break free from the submission before hitting a boot to the midsection and a Kneecap Neckbreaker Thatcher crawls to the corner and Owens unloads with mudhole stomps before charging in for a cannonball! Thatcher avoids before grabbing onto the leg and applying the Stretch MuffleBrock Lock on Owens leg. Eventually the strain on Tim's neck gets to be too much and he releases the hold but not before lifting Owens off the ground inflicting as much damage to the knee as possible. Timothy now stomping on the shoulder and elbow and wrist several times before going for the Fujiwara Armbar! Owens struggles and considers submission before hooking on with his free arm into a roll-up for two. A Stunner follows causing Owens to grab his arm in pain. Even still he's able to cover for the one, two, three. Tim Thatcher accepts Imperium's offer backstage.
Kevin Owens (6) def. Timothy Thatcher (4) (13:46)
Mustafa Ali vs Tommaso Ciampa
The story here is Ali has yet to get a win in the tournament whether it be due to passing out or interference or it just not being his night, Mustafa cannot win the title now but is fighting against a man who still can. Tommaso Ciampa needs to defeat Ali here to have a chance to qualify for Takeover. Ciampa, realizing Ali's aerial ability tries to take out the legs early with a Cloverleaf variation, but Ali rolls forward smashing Tommaso into the turnbuckles. Ciampa goes to the outside clutching his neck when Ali executes a dazzling Springboard Tope Con Hilo! Mustafa tosses Ciampa back in and looks to follow up from behind. Reverse Frankensteiner but Ciampa clutches on to the ropes causing Ali to slip off. A running knee strike to a kneeling Ali gets a two count. Ciampa drags him up into Air Raid Crash position which is reversed into a roll-up for a near fall. Ali ducks the clothesline attempt and connects with a Springboard Tornado DDT further damaging the bad neck of Ciampa. When that only gets a two count Ali charges off the ropes for a Tilt-A-Whirl DDT but Ciampa tosses him off the shoulder and looks for a backfist which Mustafa ducks. Ali looks for a springboard and Ciampa is close behind tossing him off the ropes with a nasty german suplex. Ciampa marches over hooking onto the waist and connecting with another german suplex, a second and a third all while maintaining waist control. Ciampa looks for Fairytale Ending and Ali hooks onto the head for a huracanrana into the turnbuckles. Ali climbs seeing the opening and sticks a 054° to the back for a surprise three count. Ali has finally gotten a big win, proving that he can do it. Ciampa lounges in the corner, beside himself as he frantically whispers to nobody. Ali is celebrating when Ciampa blasts him from behind. Ciampa with a powerbomb into the knees. Fairytale Ending! and now a Fujiwara Armbar applied! Ali refusing to tap as Ciampa wrenches away before snapping the arm. Ciampa exits backstage to "Psycho Killer" chants before reemerging with a table! He gets Ali on the apron and hits a huge powerbomb through the wooden desk! Ali lies broken as Ciampa's dreams are dashed. He'll never get Goldie back now...unless.
Mustafa Ali (2) def. Tommaso Ciampa (4) (15:08)
Finn Balor vs Roderick Strong
It comes down to this. Both men have four points and the winner of this match will face Kevin Owens at Takeover Judgement Day for the NXT Championship. One man that originated in ROH, one in New Japan. They clash one on one for the first time ever right now. They grapple early creating a sequence consisting of wristlocks, headlocks and waistlocks alike. Roddy eventually has a double underhook and tries for a half nelson backbreaker which Balor arm drags out of before planting Roddy with a scintillating slingblade. Roderick rolls to the outside and Balor looks to follow up with a rare Tope Con Hilo. After Roderick avoids and Balor crashes and burns Strong scoops him up for a fireman's carry double knee gutbuster on the outside. Roderick returns to the ring and gloats over a fallen Finn Balor. As Finn tries to drag himself up on the apron, Roderick exits to meet him. He gets him in torture rack position and nears the steel post. Finn fights back with elbows. He hooks onto the head and lands a 1916 from the apron to the floor! Both men narrowly beat the count of ten. Balor sets Roddy in the corner and lands a few running knife edge chops as he whips Strong into various edges of the ring. Strong is set up top and Balor climbs thinking Avalanche Bloody Sunday. Roddy fights back with blows to the kidneys before hooking on for an AVALANCHE OLYMPIC SLAM! COVER FOR THE ONE, TWO, NEAR FALL! Roddy pounding the mat in utter frustration. Strong irish whips Balor into the corner and charges in with a leaping knee strike before hooking on for a belly to back facebuster Balor hangs on for an arm drag and hooks on for Bloody Sunday! He covers and gets a three count but as the ref counts three he notices Roderick's foot touching the rope (Ala Seth/Neville) stopping his decision. Balor starts lashing out at the ref before dragging up Roddy for another Bloody Sunday which Roddy reverses into a close roll-up. Roderick grabs Balor to connect with a cradle backbreaker. He desperately drags up an injured Balor for End Of Heartache which Balor turns into a DDT. Balor climbs hitting a Coup De Grace to the back of the skull and then one to the stomach affording him the golden Takeover ticket.
Finn Balor (6) def. Roderick Strong (4) (18:27)
submitted by CheebsHasReturned to EliteProWrestling [link] [comments]


2020.08.30 22:21 PaytonIsIlliterate A History of the World in 6 Glasses but it’s the introduction and the first chapter

Introduction
Vital Fluids
There is no history of mankind, there are only many histories of all kinds of aspects of human life. —Karl Popper, philosopher of science (1902-94) THIRST is DEADLIER than hunger. Deprived of food, you might survive for a few weeks, but deprived of liquid refreshment, you would be lucky to last more than a few days. Only breathing matters more. Tens of thousands of years ago, early humans foraging in small bands had to remain near rivers, springs, and lakes to ensure an adequate supply of freshwater, since storing or carrying it was impractical. The availability of water constrained and guided humankind's progress. Drinks have continued to shape human history ever since. Only in the past ten thousand years or so have other beverages emerged to challenge the preeminence of water. These drinks do not occur naturally in any quantity but must be made deliberately. As well as offering safer alternatives to con taminated, disease-ridden water supplies in human settlements, these new beverages have taken on a variety of roles. Many of them have been used as currencies, in religious rites, as political symbols, or as sources of philosophical and artistic inspiration. Some have served to highlight the power and status of the elite, and others to subjugate or appease the downtrodden. Drinks have been used to celebrate births, commemorate deaths, and forge and strengthen social bonds; to seal business transactions and treaties; to sharpen the senses or dull the mind; to convey lifesaving medicines and deadly poisons. As the tides of history have ebbed and flowed, different drinks have come to prominence in different times, places, and cultures, from stone-age villages to ancient Greek dining rooms or Enlightenment coffeehouses. Each one became popular when it met a particular need or aligned with a historical trend; in some cases, it then went on to influence the course of history in unexpected ways. Just as archaeologists divide history into different periods based on the use of different materials—the stone age, the bronze age, the iron age, and so on—it is also possible to divide world history into periods dominated by different drinks. Six beverages in particular—beer, wine, spirits, coffee, tea, and cola—chart the flow of world history. Three contain alcohol, and three contain caffeine, but what
they all have in common is that each one was the defining drink during a pivotal historical period, from antiquity to the present day. The event that set humankind on the path toward modernity was the adoption of farming, beginning with the domestication of cereal grains, which first took place in the Near East around ten thousand years ago and was accompanied by the appearance of a rudimentary form of beer. The first civilizations arose around five thousand years later in Mesopotamia and Egypt, two parallel cultures founded on a surplus of cereal grains produced by organized agriculture on a massive scale. This freed a small fraction of the population from the need to work in the fields and made possible the emergence of specialist priests, administrators, scribes, and craftsmen. Not only did beer nourish the inhabitants of the first cities and the authors of the first written documents, but their wages and rations were paid in bread and beer, as cereal grains were the basis of the economy. The flourishing culture that developed within the city-states of ancient Greece in the first millennium BCE spawned advances in philosophy, politics, science, and literature that still underpin modern Western thought. Wine was the lifeblood of this Mediterranean civilization, and the basis of vast seaborne trade that helped to spread Greek ideas far and wide. Politics, poetry, and philosophy were discussed at formal drinking parties, or symposia, in which the participants drank from a shared bowl of diluted wine. The spread of wine drinking continued under the Romans, the structure of whose hierarchical society was reflected in a minutely calibrated pecking order of wines and wine styles. Two of the world's major religions issued opposing verdicts on the drink: The Christian ritual of the Eucharist has wine at its center, but following the collapse of the Roman Empire and the rise of Islam, wine was banned in the very region of its birth. The rebirth of Western thought a millennium after the fall of Rome was sparked by the rediscovery of Greek and Roman knowledge, much of which had been safeguarded and extended by scholars in the Arab world. At the same time, European explorers, driven by the desire to circumvent the Arab monopoly on trade with the East, sailed west to the Americas and east to India and China. Global sea routes were established, and European nations vied with one another to carve up the globe. During this Age of Exploration a new range of beverages came to the fore, made possible by distillation, an alchemical process known in the ancient world but much improved by Arab scholars. Distilled drinks provided
alcohol in a compact, durable form ideal for sea transport. Such drinks as brandy, rum, and whiskey were used as currency to buy slaves and became particularly popular in the North American colonies, where they became so politically contentious that they played a key role in the establishment of the United States. Hard on the heels of this geographic expansion came its intellectual counterpart, as Western thinkers looked beyond long-held beliefs inherited from the Greeks and devised new scientific, political, and economic theories. The dominant drink of this Age of Reason was coffee, a mysterious and fashionable beverage introduced to Europe from the Middle East. The establishments that sprung up to serve coffee had a markedly different character from taverns that sold alcoholic drinks, and became centers of commercial, political, and intellectual exchange. Coffee promoted clarity of thought, making it the ideal drink for scientists, businessmen, and philosophers. Coffeehouse discussions led to the establishment of scientific societies, the founding of newspapers, the establishment of financial institutions, and provided fertile ground for revolutionary thought, particularly in France. In some European nations, and particularly in Britain, coffee was challenged by tea imported from China. Its popularity in Europe helped to open lucrative trade routes with the East and underpinned imperialism and industrialization on an unprecedented scale, enabling Britain to become the first global superpower. Once tea had established itself as Britain's national drink, the desire to maintain the tea supply had far-reaching effects on British foreign policy, contributing to the independence of the United States, the undermining of China's ancient civilization, and the establishment of tea production in India on an industrial scale. Although artificially carbonated beverages originated in Europe in the late eighteenth century, the soft drink came into its own with the invention of Coca- Cola one hundred years later. Originally devised as a medicinal pick-me-up by an Atlanta pharmacist, it became America's national drink, an emblem of the vibrant consumer capitalism that helped to transform the United States into a superpower. Traveling alongside American servicemen as they fought wars around the world during the twentieth century, Coca-Cola went on to become the world's most widely known and distributed product and is now an icon of the controversial march toward a single global marketplace. Drinks have had a closer connection to the flow of history than is generally acknowledged, and a greater influence on its course. Understanding the
ramifications of who drank what, and why, and where they got it from, requires the traversal of many disparate and otherwise unrelated fields: the histories of agricul ture, philosophy, religion, medicine, technology, and commerce. The six beverages highlighted in this book demonstrate the complex interplay of different civilizations and the interconnectedness of world cultures. They survive in our homes today as living reminders of bygone eras, fluid testaments to the forces that shaped the modern world. Uncover their origins, and you may never look at your favorite drink in quite the same way again.
Chapter 1
A Stone-Age Brew
Fermentation and civilization are inseparable. —John Ciardi, American poet (1916-86) A Pint of Prehistory THE HUMANS WHO migrated out of Africa starting around 50,000 years ago traveled in small nomadic bands, perhaps thirty strong, and lived in caves, huts, or skin tents. They hunted game, caught fish and shellfish, and gathered edible plants, moving from one temporary camp to another to exploit seasonal food supplies. Their tools included bows and arrows, fishhooks, and needles. But then, starting around 12,000 years ago, a remarkable shift occurred. Humans in the Near East abandoned the old hunter-gatherer lifestyle of the Paleolithic period (old stone age) and began to take up farming instead, settling down in villages which eventually grew to become the world's first cities. They also developed many new technologies, including pottery, wheeled vehicles, and writing. Ever since the emergence of "anatomically modern" humans, or Homo sapiens sapiens, in Africa around 150,000 years ago, water had been humankind's basic drink. A fluid of primordial importance, it makes up two-thirds of the human body, and no life on Earth can exist without it. But with the switch from the hunter-gatherer lifestyle to a more settled way of life, humans came to rely on a new beverage derived from barley and wheat, the cereal grains that were the first plants to be deliberately cultivated. This drink became central to social, religious, and economic life and was the staple beverage of the earliest civilizations. It was the drink that first helped humanity along the path to the modern world: beer. Exactly when the first beer was brewed is not known. There was almost certainly no beer before 10,000 BCE, but it was widespread in the Near East by 4000 BCE, when it appears in a pictogram from Mesopotamia, a region that corresponds to modern-day Iraq, depicting two figures drinking beer through reed straws from a large pottery jar. (Ancient beer had grains, chaff, and other
debris floating on its surface, so a straw was necessary to avoid swallowing them.) Since the first examples of writing date from around 3400 BCE, the earliest written documents can shed no direct light on beer's origins. What is clear, however, is that the rise of beer was closely associated with the domestication of the cereal grains from which it is made and the adoption of farming. It came into existence during a turbulent period in human history that witnessed the switch from a nomadic to a settled lifestyle, followed by a sudden increase in social complexity manifested most strikingly in the emergence of cities. Beer is a liquid relic from human prehistory, and its origins are closely intertwined with the origins of civilization itself. A pictogram from a seal found at Tepe Gawra in Mesopotamia dating from around 4000 BCE. It shows two figures drinking beer through straws from a large pottery jar. The Discovery of Beer Beer was not invented but discovered. Its discovery was inevitable once the gathering of wild grains became widespread after the end of the last ice age, around 10,000 BCE, in a region known as the Fertile Crescent. This area stretches from modern-day Egypt, up the Mediterranean coast to the southeast
corner of Turkey, and then down again to the border between Iraq and Iran. It is so named because of a happy accident of geography. When the ice age ended, the uplands of the region provided an ideal environment for wild sheep, goats, cattle, and pigs—and, in some areas, for dense stands of wild wheat and barley. This meant the Fertile Crescent provided unusually rich pickings for roving bands of human hunter-gatherers. They not only hunted animals and gathered edible plants but collected the abundant cereal grains growing wild in the region. The Fertile Crescent, a region of the Near East where humans first took up farming and established large-scale settlements (shown here as black dots) Such grains provided an unexciting but reliable source of food. Although unsuitable for consumption when raw, they can be made edible by roughly pounding or crushing them and then soaking them in water. Initially, they were probably just mixed into soup. A variety of ingredients such as fish, nuts, and berries would have been mixed with water in a plastered or bitumen-lined basket. Stones, heated in a fire, were then dropped in, using a forked stick. Grains contain tiny granules of starch, and when placed in hot water they absorb moisture and then burst, releasing the starch into the soup and thickening it considerably. Cereal grains, it was soon discovered, had another unusual property: Unlike other foodstuffs, they could be stored for consumption months or even years later, if kept dry and safe. When no other foodstuffs were available to make
soup, they could be used on their own to make either a thick porridge or a thin broth or gruel. This discovery led to the development of tools and techniques to collect, process, and store grain. It involved quite a lot of effort but provided a way to guard against the possibility of future food shortages. Throughout the Fertile Crescent there is archaeological evidence from around 10,000 BCE of flint-bladed sickles for harvesting cereal grains, woven baskets for carrying them, stone hearths for drying them, underground pits for storing them, and grindstones for processing them. Although hunter-gatherers had previously led semisettled rather than entirely nomadic lives, moving between a number of temporary or seasonal shelters, the ability to store cereal grains began to encourage people to stay in one place. An experiment carried out in the 1960s shows why. An archaeologist used a flint- bladed sickle to see how efficiently a prehistoric family could have harvested wild grains, which still grow in some parts of Turkey. In one hour he gathered more than two pounds of grain, which suggested that a family that worked eight- hour days for three weeks would have been able to gather enough to provide each family member with a pound of grain a day for a year. But this would have meant staying near the stands of wild cereals to ensure the family did not miss the most suitable time to harvest them. And having gathered a large quantity of grain, they would be reluctant to leave it unguarded. The result was the first permanent settlements, such as those established on the eastern coast of the Mediterranean from around 10,000 BCE. They consisted of simple, round huts with roofs supported by wooden posts and floors sunk up to a yard into the ground. These huts usually had a hearth and a floor paved with stones and were four or five yards in diameter. A typical village consisted of around fifty huts, supporting a community of two hundred or three hundred people. Although the residents of such villages continued to hunt wild animals such as gazelles, deer, and boar, skeletal evidence suggests that they subsisted on a mainly plant-based diet of acorns, lentils, chickpeas, and cereals, which at this stage were still gathered in the wild, rather than cultivated deliberately. Cereal grains, which started off as relatively unimportant foodstuffs, took on greater significance following the discovery that they had two more unusual properties. The first was that grain soaked in water, so that it starts to sprout, tastes sweet. It was difficult to make storage pits perfectly watertight, so this property would have become apparent as soon as humans first began to store grain. The cause of this sweetness is now understood: Moistened grain produces
diastase enzymes, which convert starch within the grain into maltose sugar, or malt. (This process occurs in all cereal grains, but barley produces by far the most diastase enzymes and hence the most maltose sugar.) At a time when few other sources of sugar were available, the sweetness of this "malted" grain would have been highly valued, prompting the development of deliberate malting techniques, in which the grain was first soaked and then dried. The second discovery was even more momentous. Gruel that was left sitting around for a couple of days underwent a mysterious transformation, particularly if it had been made with malted grain: It became slightly fizzy and pleasantly intoxicating, as the action of wild yeasts from the air fermented the sugar in the gruel into alcohol. The gruel, in short, turned into beer. Even so, beer was not necessarily the first form of alcohol to pass human lips. At the time of beer's discovery, alcohol from the accidental fermentation of fruit juice (to make wine) or water and honey (to make mead) would have occurred naturally in small quantities as people tried to store fruit or honey. But fruit is seasonal and perishes easily, wild honey was only available in limited quantities, and neither wine nor mead could be stored for very long without pottery, which did not emerge until around 6000 BCE. Beer, on the other hand, could be made from cereal crops, which were abundant and could be easily stored, allowing beer to be made reliably, and in quantity, when needed. Long before pottery was available, it could have been brewed in pitch-lined baskets, leather bags or animal stomachs, hollowed-out trees, large shells, or stone vessels. Shells were used for cooking as recently as the nineteenth century in the Amazon basin, and Sahti, a traditional beer made in Finland, is still brewed in hollowed-out trees today. Once the crucial discovery of beer had been made, its quality was improved through trial and error. The more malted grain there is in the original gruel, for example, and the longer it is left to ferment, the stronger the beer. More malt means more sugar, and a longer fermentation means more of the sugar is turned into alcohol. Thoroughly cooking the gruel also contributes to the beer's strength. The malting process converts only around 15 percent of the starch found in barley grains into sugar, but when malted barley is mixed with water and brought to the boil, other starch-converting enzymes, which become active at higher temperatures, turn more of the starch into sugar, so there is more sugar for the yeast to transform into alcohol. Ancient brewers also noticed that using the same container repeatedly for
brewing produced more reliable results. Later historical records from Egypt and Mesopotamia show that brewers always carried their own "mash tubs" around with them, and one Mesopotamian myth refers to "containers which make the beer good." Repeated use of the same mash tub promoted successful fermentation because yeast cultures took up residence in the container's cracks and crevices, so that there was no need to rely on the more capricious wild yeast. Finally, adding berries, honey, spices, herbs, and other flavorings to the gruel altered the taste of the resulting beer in various ways. Over the next few thousand years, people discovered how to make a variety of beers of different strengths and flavors for different occasions. Later Egyptian records mention at least seventeen kinds of beer, some of them referred to in poetic terms that sound, to modern ears, almost like advertising slogans: Different beers were known as "the beautiful and good," "the heavenly," "the joy-bringer," "the addition to the meal," "the plentiful," "the fermented." Beers used in religious ceremonies also had special names. Similarly, early written references to beer from Mesopotamia, in the third millennium BCE, list over twenty different kinds, including fresh beer, dark beer, fresh-dark beer, strong beer, red-brown beer, light beer, and pressed beer. Red-brown beer was a dark beer made using extra malt, while pressed beer was a weaker, more watery brew that contained less grain. Mesopotamian brewers could also control the taste and color of their beer by adding different amounts of bappir, or beer- bread. To make bappir, sprouted barley was shaped into lumps, like small loaves, which were baked twice to produce a dark-brown, crunchy, unleavened bread that could be stored for years before being crumbled into the brewer's vat. Records indicate that bappir was kept in government storehouses and was only eaten during food shortages; it was not so much a foodstuff as a convenient way to store the raw material for making beer.. The Mesopotamian use of bread in brewing has led to much debate among archaeologists, some of whom have suggested that bread must therefore be an offshoot of beer making, while others have argued that bread came first and was subsequently used as an ingredient in beer. It seems most likely, however, that both bread and beer were derived from gruel. A thick gruel could be baked in the sun or on a hot stone to make flatbread; a thin gruel could be left to ferment into beer. The two were different sides of the same coin: Bread was solid beer, and beer was liquid bread.
Under the Influence of Beer? Since writing had not been invented at the time, there are no written records to attest to the social and ritual importance of beer in the Fertile Crescent during the new stone age, or Neolithic period, between 9000 BCE and 4000 BCE. But much can be inferred from later records of the way beer was used by the first literate civilizations, the Sumerians of Mesojpotamia and the ancient Egyptians. Indeed, so enduring are the cultural traditions associated with beer that some of them survive to this day. From the start, it seems that beer had an important function as a social drink. Sumerian depictions of beer from the third millennium BCE generally show two people drinking through straws from a shared vessel. By the Sumerian period, however, it was possible to filter the grains, chaff, and other debris from beer, and the advent of pottery meant it could just as easily have been served in individual cups. That beer drinkers are, nonetheless, so widely depicted using straws suggests that it was a ritual that persisted even when straws were no longer necessary. The most likely explanation for this preference is that, unlike food, beverages can genuinely be shared. When several people drink beer from the same vessel, they are all consuming the same liquid; when cutting up a piece of meat, in contrast, some parts are usually deemed to be more desirable than others. As a result, sharing a drink with someone is a universal symbol of hospitality and friendship. It signals that the person offering the drink can be trusted, by demonstrating that it is not poisoned or otherwise unsuitable for consumption. The earliest beer, brewed in a primitive vessel in an era that predated the use of individual cups, would have to have been shared. Although it is no longer customary to offer visitors a straw through which to drink from a communal vat of beer, today tea or coffee may be offered from a shared pot, or a glass of wine or spirits from a shared bottle. And when drinking alcohol in a social setting, the clinking of glasses symbolically reunites the glasses into a single vessel of shared liquid. These are traditions with very ancient origins. Just as ancient is the notion that drinks, and alcoholic drinks in particular, have supernatural properties. To Neolithic drinkers, beer's ability to intoxicate and induce a state of altered consciousness seemed magical. So, too, did the mysterious process of fermentation, which transformed ordinary gruel into beer. The obvious conclusion was that beer was a gift from the gods; accordingly,
many cultures have myths that explain how the gods invented beer and then showed humankind how to make it. The Egyptians, for example, believed that beer was accidentally discovered by Osiris, the god of agriculture and king of the afterlife. One day he prepared a mixture of water and sprouted grain, but forgot about it and left it in the sun. He later returned to find the gruel had fermented, decided to drink it, and was so pleased with the result that he passed his knowledge on to humankind. (This tale seems to tally closely with the way beer was probably discovered in the stone age.) Other beer-drinking cultures tell similar stories. Since beer was a gift from the gods, it was also the logical thing to present as a religious offering. Beer was certainly used in religious ceremonies, agricultural fertility rites, and funerals by the Sumerians and the Egyptians, so it seems likely that its religious use goes back farther still. Indeed, the religious significance of beer seems to be common to every beer-drinking culture, whether in the Americas, Africa, or Eurasia. The Incas offered their beer, called chicha, to the rising sun in a golden cup, and poured it on the ground or spat out their first mouthful as an offering to the gods of the Earth; the Aztecs offered their beer, called pulque, to Mayahuel, the goddess of fertility. In China, beers made from millet and rice were used in funerals and other ceremonies. The practice of raising a glass to wish someone good health, a happy marriage, or a safe passage into the afterlife, or to celebrate the successful completion of a project, is the modern echo of the ancient idea that alcohol has the power to invoke supernatural forces. Beer and Farming, the Seeds of Modernity Some anthropologists have even suggested that beer might have played a central role in the adoption of agriculture, one of the turning points of human history. Farming paved the way for the emergence of civilization by creating food surpluses, freeing some members of society from the need to produce food and enabling them to specialize in particular activities and crafts, and so setting humanity on the path to the modern world. This happened first in the Fertile Crescent, starting around 9000 BCE, as people began cultivating barley and wheat deliberately, rather than simply gathering wild grains for consumption and storage. Of course, the switch from hunting and gathering to farming was a gradual
transition over a few thousand years, as deliberately cultivated crops played an increasingly significant dietary role. Yet in the grand scheme of human history, it happened in an eyeblink. Humans had been hunter-gatherers ever since humankind diverged from the apes, around seven million years earlier; then they suddenly took up farming. Exactly why the switch to farming occurred, and occurred when it did, is still hotly debated, and there are dozens of theories. Perhaps the amount of food available to hunter-gatherers in the Fertile Crescent diminished, for example, either because of climatic changes, or because some species died out or were hunted to extinction. Another possibility is that a more sedentary (but still hunter-gatherer) lifestyle increased human fertility, allowing the population to grow and creating demand for new sources of food. Or perhaps once beer had been discovered, and its consumption had become socially and ritually important, there was a greater desire to ensure the availability of grain by deliberate farming, rather than relying on wild grains. Farming was, according to this view, adopted partly in order to maintain the supply of beer. Tempting though it is to attribute the adoption of agriculture entirely to beer, it seems most likely that beer drinking was just one of many factors that helped to tip the balance away from hunting and gathering and toward farming and a sedentary lifestyle based on small settlements. Once this transition had begun, a ratchet effect took hold: The more farming was relied on as a means of food production by a particular community, and the more its population grew, the harder it was to go back to the old nomadic lifestyle based on hunting and gathering. Beer drinking would also have assisted the transition to farming in a more subtle way. Because long-term storage of beer was difficult, and complete fermentation takes up to a week, most beer would have been drunk much sooner, while still fermenting. Such a beer would have had a relatively low alcohol content by modern standards but would have been rich in suspended yeast, which dramatically improved its protein and vitamin content. The high level of vitamin B, in particular, would have compensated for the decline in the consumption of meat, the usual source of that vitamin, as hunting gave way to farming. Furthermore, since it was made using boiled water, beer was safer to drink than water, which quickly becomes contaminated with human waste in even the smallest settlements. Although the link between contaminated water and ill health was not understood until modern times, humans quickly learned to be wary of
unfamiliar water supplies, and to drink where possible from clear-running streams away from human settlements. (Hunter-gatherers did not have to worry about contaminated water supplies, since they lived in small, mobile bands and left their human waste behind when they moved on.) In other words, beer helped to make up for the decline in food quality as people took up farming, provided a safe form of liquid nourishment, and gave groups of beer-drinking farmers a comparative nutritional advantage over non-beer drinkers. Farming spread throughout the Fertile Crescent between 7000 BCE and 5000 BCE, as an increasing number of plants and animals (starting with sheep and goats) were domesticated, and new irrigation techniques made farming possible on the hot, dry lowlands of Mesopotamia and in the Nile Valley of Egypt. A typical farming village of the period consisted of huts built from clay and reed mats, and perhaps some rather grander houses built of sun-dried mud bricks. Beyond the village would have been fields where cereals, dates, and other crops were cultivated, with a few sheep and oxen tethered or penned nearby. Wild fowl, fish, and game, when available, supplemented the villagers' diet. It was a very different lifestyle from the hunting and gathering of just a few thousand years earlier. And the transition toward an even more complex society had begun. Settlements from this period often had a storehouse where valuable items were kept, including sacred objects and stores of surplus food. These storehouses were definitely communal, since they were far larger than would have been needed by any single family. Keeping surplus food in the storehouse was one way to ward off future food shortages; ritual and religious activity, in which the gods were called upon to ensure a good harvest, was another. As these two activities became intertwined, deposits of surplus food came to be seen as offerings to the gods, and the storehouses became temples. To ensure all villagers were pulling their weight, contributions to the common storehouse were recorded using small clay tokens, found throughout the Fertile Crescent from as early as 8000 BCE. Such contributions were justified as religious offerings by administrator-priests who lived off the surplus food and directed communal activities, such as the construction of buildings and the maintenance of irrigation systems. Thus were sown the seeds of accountancy, writing, and bureaucracy. The idea that beer provided some of the impetus for this dramatic shift in the nature of human activity, after millions of years of hunting and gathering, remains controversial. But the best evidence for the importance of beer in prehistoric
times is its extraordinary significance to the people of the first great civilizations. For although the origins of this ancient drink inevitably remain shrouded in mystery and conjecture, there is no question that the daily lives of Egyptians and Mesopotamians, young and old, rich and poor, were steeped in beer.
submitted by PaytonIsIlliterate to copypasta [link] [comments]


2020.08.30 09:53 sardarbhagat Fifty people who have affected Hindus and Hinduism in a negative way – Francois Gautier

In a recently posted article on François Gautier’s website, he lists the names of 50 people who can be described as enemies of Hindus and Hinduism. He says that he created the list, which is incomplete, without malice aforethought.
Here is the list, 50 Biggest Enemies of Hindus (Dead or Alive), including the reasons he gives to justify his choice of enemies — Editor
Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj, who along with a few hundred men, stood his ground against the most powerful emperor of his times, has practically no place in Indian history books and is often described as a petty chieftain or even a plunderer. So is Maharana Pratap, the only Rajput who fought against the Mughals and actually defeated Akbar in Haldighati.
Hindus tend to merge and melt wherever they live—and in the process, lose some of their identities and togetherness. And finally the most deadly and vicious intellectuals that we have reviewed above, are Hindus most of them. They are the ones that should be targeted, in a non-violent but firm manner. – Francois Gautier, 13 June 2016. The list has been edited by a staff writer at Newsgram and again by the editor of Bharata Bharati. See the original here.
submitted by sardarbhagat to IndiaConversionMafia [link] [comments]


2020.08.28 21:35 ArthurDrakoni Review: The Peshawar Lancers by SM Stirling

This review originally came from my blog, but is reproduced here per subreddit rules.
There are plenty of books I want to listen to, but they just aren't available in audio form. It frustrating, but it is what it is. Sometimes, however, my patience is rewarded in a big way. Case in point, the book we're reviewing today. We're reviewing the alternate history novel The Peshawar Lancers by S.M. Stirling.
The Peshawar Lancers takes place in a world where, in 1878, the Earth was bombarded by a series of asteroids. This event would later become known as The Fall. In addition to the chaos of the impacts, there were massive tsunamis and five years of endless of winter. The European powers fled south to their colonies in warmer climates. The novel takes place in the year 2025. The climate has long since stabilized, but the world has been forever changed. The British Empire, now known as The Angrezi Raj, is centered India and has its capital in Delhi. They've rather thoroughly gone native and the extended exile has produced a unique Anglo-Indian hybrid culture.
The novel follows several characters from across the Angrezi Raj, and their plots do intertwine and intersect. First, we have Athelstan King, and his right-hand man Narayan Singh, of the Peshawar Lancers; an elite military team who guard the frontier of the Viceroyalty of India. We also follow Athelstan's twin sister Cassandra, a highly respected astronomer who is reaching a way to prevent a second Fall. We also follow Prince Charles and Princess Sita of the British Royal Family. Finally, there is Yasmini, a psychic girl on the run from the sworn enemy of the Angrezi Raj, the Russian Empire. Oh, did I mention that Russia is ruled by satanic cannibals?
I can say without a shadow of a doubt that this novel was worth the wait. This is one of the best alternate history novels I've read in quite some time. S.M. Stirling has long been hailed as a master of worldbuilding, and those skills are on full display here. The world of The Peshawar Lancers is rich, vibrant and detailed. I could practically smell the spices on the streets of Delhi, feel the rush the wind on a soaring airship, and overall just really felt like I was going on a swashbuckling alternate history British-Indian adventure.
Let's delve into the specifics of the worldbuilding. The Angrezi Raj is divided into three primary parts: the viceroyalties of India, Australia and the Cape. The Viceroyalty of India comprises India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Myanmar, Malaysia and a bit of Thailand. It is the one we get to see the most of, and it appears to be where the Anglo-Indian hybrid culture is strongest. It is the cultural and political heart of the empire. Each of the viceroyalties operates its own colonies across the globe, and India is in-charge of managing the British home isles. Oh, how the tables have turned indeed. For extra irony, the British of the home isles closely follow Indian standards of fashion and the India's spin on English.
I suppose I should elaborate on that bit. English has gone through a few changes since The Fall. Several lone-words from a smattering of Indian languages have crept in. Thus, the Angrezi are prone to say things such as "The Kunwar must fulfill his rajadharma for the good of the Angrezi Raj". Also, the "Th" sound has been replaced by "Dee" and W has been supplanted by V. Despite all of this, the Angrezi insist that they are speaking the exact same English as Queen Victoria I.
The Church of England has pretty much become Hinduism in all but name; though it is mentioned a more conservative version, closer to the original thing, exists as well. Characters frequently swear in the name of various Hindu deities. Though it was also mentioned that Benjamin Disraeli, who lead the evacuation efforts during The Fall, has become a saint. Perhaps in the biggest bit of irony, the Angrezi consider beef-eating to be extremely taboo, and Angrezi cuisine has fully embraced Indian ingredients. Charles and Sita shudder at the thought that their ancestors ate cows. There's a particularly amusing scene where Henri de Vascogne, a visiting French diplomat, is amazed at how flavorful and tasty Angrezi cuisine is; noting the old stories about British cuisine being bland must have false. In fact, he finds Angrezi breakfast foods to be a bit over spiced for his taste.
Most of Britain's colonies in Southern Africa, plus a few Portuguese and would-have-been German colonies, have become the Viceroyalty of the Cape. They're pretty much Apartheid Era South Africa, but bigger and with a steampunk-lite level of technology. There's talk of them breaking away from the Raj, but they're still loyal...for the moment. Afrikaans has become a dead language, but it, along with Bantu, still managed to contribute several words to the Kapenaar dialect.
Australia and New Zealand form the Viceroyalty of Australia. Out of all of the viceroyalties it is probably closest to the version from our world. Fiercely loyal to the Raj, but culturally more conservative, meaning closer to what we'd recognize as Victorian culture. Their English is the closest to our own, to the point that Athelstan can't understand an Australian member of the Peshawar Lancers. Australia has a colony in the Pacific Northwest of North America.
Speaking of which, what happened to America? It got hit hard by The Fall, and the resulting tsunamis. The less effected region couldn't handle the influx of refugees, and America collapsed into Neo-Barbarism and tribalism. There are a few civilized places; Texas has a semi-civilized tribal confederation, California is home to a series of theocratic city-states, and the Mormons are doing pretty well in Utah. The Angrezi have a few outposts at the major rivers, but no serious settlements.
Now let's talk about the rest of the world. France, which is now known as France-outre-mer, evacuated to its North African colonies. They've held onto Marseilles and a few other places in Southern France, and have retained most of their original culture. They've also begun resettling Italy and the Iberian Peninsula, though that's being slightly complicated by the Caliphate of Damascus, the successor to the Ottoman Empire. Egypt has managed to become independent, and acts as a buffer state between France and the Caliphate. It's also mentioned that Brazil is doing fairly well for itself, albeit they also happen to be members of the caudillo of the month club. The Dutch evacuated to Indonesia and exist as a client state of the Raj as the Republic of Batavia. They've got a hybrid culture with Indonesia like the British do with India.
The Raj's main rival for power is Dai-Nippon. They're a union of China and Japan, and by that I mean Japan invaded China during The Fall. They control the Japanese home isles, China, a good chunk of Eastern Asia and they have a colony on the west coast of North America. They are ruled by a Mikado who, these days, spends just as much time, if not more, in Peking as he does in Edo. And yeah, Beijing and Tokyo are still called Peking and Edo. From what we glimpse it appears the Westernization has slightly reversed, with the Nippiness favoring traditional clothing, and samurai still play a role in society.
By far the most notable resident of the post-Fall world, other than the Angrezi themselves, is the Russian Empire. The Fall has a massive impact on the Russian psyche. As a result, they turned their backs on Christianity and embraced Satanism. Nobody know how exactly this happened, but it is speculated that it might be a very corrupted version the Yazidi belief in Melek Taus, the peacock angel. Indeed, the Russians often refer to Satan as Melek Taus; though they also associate him with the Slavic god Chernobog.
Russia retreated to their Central Asian territories, and their capital is Samarkand. Russia makes a point of keeping its Kazakh and Uzbek subjects terrified and in-line by, among other things, eating them. At one point Count Ignatieff, the main villain of the book, looks forward to getting home to Samarkand to enjoy a delicious suckling Uzbek. So yeah, the Russians literally eat babies.
The most notable feature of Russian Empire are the Sisters of the True Dreamer. They're descended from a nun who had psychic powers, which they all inherited. Boys go mad around puberty, but girls keep for several years before their madness sets in. The madness can be averted with sex, but that also removes their powers, so the Russians make a point of ensuring that doesn't happen. You might wonder why they never try to run away, but there could be several reason for this. If the girls never see themselves getting away in their dream, they won't try, and thus you get a self-fulfilling prophecy. Alternatively, they do try, but their sisters rat them out. The Sisters are the one true fantasy element in an otherwise mostly steampunk-lite sort of novel. There is one particularly amusing scene where Yasmini gets a glimpse of several alternate worlds, including our world.
So, how is this story for realism? Well, perhaps not the most realistic, but that's not necessarily a bad thing. The asteroid that killed the dinosaurs was about the size of Mount Everest, so I'm not sure if humanity could have realistically survived The Fall. Of course, that depends on how much total mass those asteroids amounted to. Stirling has said that he wrote The Peshawar Lancers because he want to write something that like the adventures stories of Rudyard Kipling, which you can't really do in the modern explored world; but he also wanted to avoid the disappointment of historical fiction.
He knew what he wanted to happen, built the story around that, and the book is all the better for that. As you may have guess, I adore the worldbuilding Stirling put into this book. This book is often described as being steampunk, but I'm not sure if I entirely sure if I agree with that label. It is certainly true that the book includes several things often found in steampunk works, such as airships and Babbage Engines, but for the most part the technology is typical Victorian and Edwardian stuff. Of course, in the grand scheme of things, the exact labeling is fairly inconsequential. At the end of the book there is a very large appendix that really fleshes out the details of the history of this alternate world.
It was kind of amazing to think that Athelstan and Cassandra, both in their mid-twenties, were about the same age as me when I was reading this book. I felt the same way about Jazz Bashara when I read Artemis, which I will get around to reviewing at some point. Prince Charles was, I would say, probably different from the Prince Charles of our world. He certainly sounds younger and more handsome than the Prince Charles of our world. Well, that and he's the son of King-Emperor John II, who has no analogue in our world that I can think of. One touch I liked is that the British Royal Family is still called Saxe-Coburg Gotha. Germany was destroyed during The Fall, and thus World War I never happened, so they never changed their name to Windsor.
Cassandra's romantic struggles give us insight into the society of the Raj. It's mentioned that women have made considerable strides and advances, but they still lack the vote. Cassandra is attracted to Charles, but if she marries him, she'll have to give up her hard-won position at the university. So it seems that, beneath the adventure and exoticism, the Raj still has its share of issues to sort out. Of course, for me personally, the lack of air conditioning would be a real killer.
I haven't really been talking about the characters. That not because I thought they were bad, or that I didn't enjoy them. I did, very much so, but when I think of The Peshawar Lancers I always think first and foremost about the amazing worldbuilding. Hey, if nothing else, it gives you something to discover when you read this book.
I would also like to take a moment to plug the awesome audiobook version. The audiobook version is, of course, the whole reason we're having this review. It is narrated by Shaun Grindell, who perfectly captures the story. I'm very happy that this amazing work of alternate history is available in audiobook form at long last.
Well, there you have it. I've been waiting for The Peshawar Lancers to come out in audio for quite some time, and it was well worth the wait. Easily one of the best alternate history novels I've read in a while. Well, I think that should do it for now. I will see you guys next time.
I’ll include a link to the original blog post here. You won’t really find anything that ain’t here, but you will see that SM Stirling himself was kind enough to leave a comment thanking me for my review: https://drakoniandgriffalco.blogspot.com/2018/09/book-review-peshawar-lancers-by-sm.html?m=1
submitted by ArthurDrakoni to Fantasy [link] [comments]


African Origins Of European Fashion.WMV Fashion and Visual Culture in the 19th Century: The Girl of the Period - Professor Lynda Nead Kalen Allen on European fashion week - YouTube 100 Years of Banned Fashion  Glamour - YouTube Fashion Culture  Paris Fashion: A Cultural History - YouTube 1950s Fashion Is Not What You Think It Is - YouTube 19th Century Fashion - How To Tell Different Decades Apart ...

Fashion History Timeline A hub for fashion research

  1. African Origins Of European Fashion.WMV
  2. Fashion and Visual Culture in the 19th Century: The Girl of the Period - Professor Lynda Nead
  3. Kalen Allen on European fashion week - YouTube
  4. 100 Years of Banned Fashion Glamour - YouTube
  5. Fashion Culture Paris Fashion: A Cultural History - YouTube
  6. 1950s Fashion Is Not What You Think It Is - YouTube
  7. 19th Century Fashion - How To Tell Different Decades Apart ...

African Origins Of European Fashion.WMV dfolks15. Loading... Unsubscribe from dfolks15? ... The History of Fashion - Duration: 7:03. Hoplites High Fashion Recommended for you. Enjoy the videos and music you love, upload original content, and share it all with friends, family, and the world on YouTube. first person to count all the words I mispronounced gets 10 points for their house. also, is it just me or do I sound like the watchmojo narrator? On October 17, 2017, Dr. Valerie Steele, director of The Museum at FIT, presented an in-depth look at the new edition of her book, 'Paris Fashion: A Cultural... Take a look back at the last century of banned fashion, from restrictions on the use of bird feathers in hats in the 1910s, and women's shorts being banned i... Respectable women had been seduced by the discourse around fashion and had lost their subtle purity and become brash and vulgar. In France, James Tissot painted a series of pictures entitled The ... hi, yes, my room is a mess, I'm working on it. the dress from the 100 years old dress video is currently undergoing cleaning. _____ My Instagram: https:...